Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most serious neurodegenerative diseases in the globe. As a result, there is an acute need to discover indications that allow for early disease detection. There is growing scientific data showing the similarities between the eye and other central nervous system components, suggesting that information obtained in ophthalmic research might be valuable in the study and diagnosis of AD. Fifty male albino Wistar rats were separated into five groups: the first group served as control, and the other four groups of animals were administrated aluminium chloride (AlCl 3) in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) for 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks, respectively. Insights into the function of the retina by electroretinogram (ERG) and the changes thought to have occurred in the molecular structure of the retina and brain using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) as a result of AD progression induced by AlCl 3 in rats were done. Moreover, the measurement of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) was done. After 6 and 8 weeks of AlCl 3 injection, there was a substantial reduction ( p ≤ 0.05) in a- and b-wave amplitudes and a significant rise ( p ≤ 0.05) in implicit time compared to controls. A significant elevation ( p ≤ 0.05) of AchE content was observed after 4, 6, and 8 weeks. FTIR revealed a significant increase ( p ≤ 0.05) of β-turn and β-sheet content associated with significant decrease ( p ≤ 0.05) of α-helix content for all groups administrated with AlCl 3. Our findings suggest that retinal biomarkers such as ERG of the retina may be used as a screening tool for detection of AD. Secondary structural changes in the proteins of the retina and the brain were similar in AD rats' model and precede retinal dysfunction.