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      Preparation and evaluation of Vinpocetine self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets

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          The main objective of this study was to develop a pH gradient release pellet with self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS), which could not only improve the oral bioavailability of Vinpocetine (VIN), a poor soluble drug, but reduce the fluctuation of plasma concentration. First, the liquid VIN SEDDS formulation was prepared. Then the self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets were prepared by extrusion spheronization technique, and formulation consisted by the liquid SEDDS, absorbent (colloidal silicon dioxide), penetration enhancer (sodium chloride), microcrystalline cellulose, ethyl alcohol, and three coating materials (HPMC, Eudragit L30D55, Eudragit FS30D) were eventually selected. Three kinds of coated pellets were mixed in capsules with the mass ratio of 1:1:1. The release curves of capsules were investigated in vitro under the simulated gastrointestinal conditions. In addition, the oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of VIN self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets, commercial tablets and liquid VIN SEDDS were evaluated in Beagle dogs. The oral bioavailability of self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets was about 149.8% of commercial VIN tablets, and it was about 86% of liquid VIN SEDDS, but there were no significant difference between liquid SEDDS and self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets. In conclusion, the self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets could significantly enhance the absorption of VIN and effectively achieve a pH gradient release. And the self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellet was a promising method to improve bioavailability of insoluble drugs.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Solid lipid nanoparticles for enhancing vinpocetine's oral bioavailability.

           Jing Qin,  Yifan Luo,  Z. Ren (2006)
          An ultrasonic-solvent emulsification technique was adopted to prepare vinpocetine loaded Glyceryl monostearate (GMS) nanodispersions with narrow size distribution. To increase the lipid load the process was conducted at 50 degrees C, and in order to prepare nanoparticle using an ultrasonic-solvent emulsification technique. The mean particle size and droplet size distribution, drug loading capacity, drug entrapment efficiency (EE%), zeta potential, and long-term physical stability of the SLNs were investigated in detail respectively. Drug release from two sorts of VIN-SLN was studied using a dialysis bag method. A pharmacokinetic study was conducted in male rats after oral administration of 10 mg kg(-1) VIN in different formulations, it was found that the relative bioavailability of VIN in SLNs was significantly increased compared with that of the VIN solution. The amount of surfactant also had a marked effect on the oral absorption of VIN with SLN formulations. The absorption mechanism of the SLN formulations was also discussed. These results indicated that VIN absorption is enhanced significantly by employing SLN formulations. SLNs offer a new approach to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs.
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            Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) for improved oral delivery of lipophilic drugs.

            The oral delivery of hydrophobic drugs presents a major challenge because of the low aqueous solubility of such compounds. Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS), which are isotropic mixtures of oils, surfactants, solvents and co-solvents/surfactants, can be used for the design of formulations in order to improve the oral absorption of highly lipophilic drug compounds. SEDDS can be orally administered in soft or hard gelatin capsules and form fine relatively stable oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions upon aqueous dilution owing to the gentle agitation of the gastrointestinal fluids. The efficiency of oral absorption of the drug compound from the SEDDS depends on many formulation-related parameters, such as surfactant concentration, oil/surfactant ratio, polarity of the emulsion, droplet size and charge, all of which in essence determine the self-emulsification ability. Thus, only very specific pharmaceutical excipient combinations will lead to efficient self-emulsifying systems. Although many studies have been carried out, there are few drug products on the pharmaceutical market formulated as SEDDS confirming the difficulty of formulating hydrophobic drug compounds into such formulations. At present, there are four drug products, Sandimmune and Sandimmun Neoral (cyclosporin A), Norvir (ritonavir), and Fortovase (saquinavir) on the pharmaceutical market, the active compounds of which have been formulated into specific SEDDS. Significant improvement in the oral bioavailability of these drug compounds has been demonstrated for each case. The fact that almost 40% of the new drug compounds are hydrophobic in nature implies that studies with SEDDS will continue, and more drug compounds formulated as SEDDS will reach the pharmaceutical market in the future.
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              Effect of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems containing Labrasol on tight junctions in Caco-2 cells.

              The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two novel self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) containing Labrasol with different dilutions on tight junctions. Changes in barrier properties of Caco-2 cell monolayers, including transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability to the paracellular marker, i.e., mannitol, were assessed in response to dilutions and surfactants contents within formulations. The cytotoxicity of SMEDDS and the effect of surfactants on Caco-2 cells were evaluated by the MTT. Changes in subcellular localization of the tight junction proteins, ZO-1 and F-actin, were examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results demonstrated that negatively charged SMEDDS with different dilutions had no effect on the TEER, but significantly increased the permeability of mannitol. In contrast, the positively charged formulation showed a dilution-dependent reduction in TEER. A corresponding increase in mannitol permeability of up to 29.4-fold to 64.7-fold greater than the control was also observed across the monolayer. Labrasol with the concentration of 0.1 and 1% was shown to increase the permeability of mannitol by 4.6-fold and 33.8-fold, respectively. The mechanism of opening of tight junctions was found to involve F-actin-related changes and redistribution of ZO-1.

                Author and article information

                Drug Deliv
                Drug Deliv
                Drug Delivery
                Taylor & Francis
                18 October 2017
                : 24
                : 1
                : 1598-1604
                [a ]Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University , Shenyang, China;
                [b ]Department of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University , Shenyang, China;
                [c ]Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for TCM Viscera-State Theory and Applications, Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine , Shenyang, China
                Author notes
                CONTACT Xinggang Yang yangxg123@ 123456163.com Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University , 103 Wenhua Road, Shenyang110016, China
                © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Pages: 7, Words: 5118
                Research Article
                Research Article


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