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      Exploration of age-related mitochondrial dysfunction and the anti-aging effects of resveratrol in zebrafish retina

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          It is currently believed that aging is closely linked with mitochondrial dysfunction, and that resveratrol exhibits anti-aging and neuroprotective effects by improving mitochondrial function, even though the mechanisms are not well defined. This study explored mitochondrial quality (mitochondrial DNA integrity and copy number), mitochondrial function (fusion/fission, mitophagy/autophagy), antioxidant system and activity of the Akt/mTOR and Ampk/Sirt1/Pgc1α pathways, and inflammation in aging zebrafish retinas to identify the probable mechanisms of resveratrol’s anti-aging and neuroprotective effects. mtDNA integrity, mtDNA copy number, mitochondrial fusion regulators, mitophagy, and antioxidant-related genes were all decreased whereas Akt/mTOR activity and inflammation was increased upon aging in zebrafish retinas. Resveratrol was shown to not only increase mitochondrial quality and function, but also to suppress Akt/mTOR activity in zebrafish retinas. These results support the notion that mitochondrial dysfunction and increased Akt/mTOR activity are major players in age-related retinal neuropathy in zebrafish, and demonstrate a trend towards mitochondrial fragmentation in the aging retina. Importantly, resveratrol promoted mitochondrial function, up-regulating Ampk/Sirt1/Pgc1α, and down-regulated Akt/mTOR pathway activity in zebrafish retinas, suggesting that it may be able to prevent age-related oculopathy.

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          Most cited references 56

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          mTOR controls mitochondrial oxidative function through a YY1-PGC-1alpha transcriptional complex.

          Transcriptional complexes that contain peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor coactivator (PGC)-1alpha control mitochondrial oxidative function to maintain energy homeostasis in response to nutrient and hormonal signals. An important component in the energy and nutrient pathways is mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a kinase that regulates cell growth, size and survival. However, it is unknown whether and how mTOR controls mitochondrial oxidative activities. Here we show that mTOR is necessary for the maintenance of mitochondrial oxidative function. In skeletal muscle tissues and cells, the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin decreased the gene expression of the mitochondrial transcriptional regulators PGC-1alpha, oestrogen-related receptor alpha and nuclear respiratory factors, resulting in a decrease in mitochondrial gene expression and oxygen consumption. Using computational genomics, we identified the transcription factor yin-yang 1 (YY1) as a common target of mTOR and PGC-1alpha. Knockdown of YY1 caused a significant decrease in mitochondrial gene expression and in respiration, and YY1 was required for rapamycin-dependent repression of those genes. Moreover, mTOR and raptor interacted with YY1, and inhibition of mTOR resulted in a failure of YY1 to interact with and be coactivated by PGC-1alpha. We have therefore identified a mechanism by which a nutrient sensor (mTOR) balances energy metabolism by means of the transcriptional control of mitochondrial oxidative function. These results have important implications for our understanding of how these pathways might be altered in metabolic diseases and cancer.
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            Autophagy maintains stemness by preventing senescence.

            During ageing, muscle stem-cell regenerative function declines. At advanced geriatric age, this decline is maximal owing to transition from a normal quiescence into an irreversible senescence state. How satellite cells maintain quiescence and avoid senescence until advanced age remains unknown. Here we report that basal autophagy is essential to maintain the stem-cell quiescent state in mice. Failure of autophagy in physiologically aged satellite cells or genetic impairment of autophagy in young cells causes entry into senescence by loss of proteostasis, increased mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, resulting in a decline in the function and number of satellite cells. Re-establishment of autophagy reverses senescence and restores regenerative functions in geriatric satellite cells. As autophagy also declines in human geriatric satellite cells, our findings reveal autophagy to be a decisive stem-cell-fate regulator, with implications for fostering muscle regeneration in sarcopenia.
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              Decline in skeletal muscle mitochondrial function with aging in humans.

              Cumulative mtDNA damage occurs in aging animals, and mtDNA mutations are reported to accelerate aging in mice. We determined whether aging results in increased DNA oxidative damage and reduced mtDNA abundance and mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle of human subjects. Studies performed in 146 healthy men and women aged 18-89 yr demonstrated that mtDNA and mRNA abundance and mitochondrial ATP production all declined with advancing age. Abundance of mtDNA was positively related to mitochondrial ATP production rate, which in turn, was closely associated with aerobic capacity and glucose tolerance. The content of several mitochondrial proteins was reduced in older muscles, whereas the level of the oxidative DNA lesion, 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine, was increased, supporting the oxidative damage theory of aging. These results demonstrate that age-related muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is related to reduced mtDNA and muscle functional changes that are common in the elderly.

                Author and article information

                Aging (Albany NY)
                Aging (Albany NY)
                Aging (Albany NY)
                Impact Journals
                31 May 2019
                19 May 2019
                : 11
                : 10
                : 3117-3137
                [1 ]Affiliated Eye Hospital of Nanchang University, Jiangxi Research Institute of Ophthalmology and Visual Science , Nanchang, , China
                [2 ]Queen Mary School of Nanchang University , Nanchang, , China
                [3 ]Institute of Life Science of Nanchang University , Nanchang, , China
                [4 ]School of Life Sciences of Nanchang University , Nanchang, , China
                [5 ]Jiangxi Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for Cardiovascular, Digestive and Neuropsychiatric Diseases, Nanchang, , China
                [* ]Equal contribution
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Xu Zhang; email: xuzhang19@ 123456163.com
                Copyright © 2019 Wang et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Research Paper

                Cell biology

                aging zebrafish, retina, mitochondrial dysfunction, mitophagy, mtor, resveratrol


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