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      Superoxide in the Vascular System

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          Abstract

          Oxidant production and regulation is becoming increasingly important in the study of vascular signaling mechanisms, and recent reviews have characterized some of the possible roles for known downstream products of superoxide formation. In this review, we will examine current research in the field, with a special emphasis on the role of the superoxide molecule itself and its place amongst the slightly better understood roles of peroxide and peroxynitrite. The regulatory roles of oxidant species are wide-ranging, and their involvement in processes ranging from intracellular and receptor signaling mechanisms that regulate endothelial mediator release and vascular contractile function to processes that control cellular growth and apoptosis has been implied. Cellular sources of superoxide production and metabolism and the chemical interaction of oxidant species with specific components of cellular signaling mechanisms are considered important factors which determine physiological responses that control vascular function.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Molecular characterization of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor.

          Mitochondria play a key part in the regulation of apoptosis (cell death). Their intermembrane space contains several proteins that are liberated through the outer membrane in order to participate in the degradation phase of apoptosis. Here we report the identification and cloning of an apoptosis-inducing factor, AIF, which is sufficient to induce apoptosis of isolated nuclei. AIF is a flavoprotein of relative molecular mass 57,000 which shares homology with the bacterial oxidoreductases; it is normally confined to mitochondria but translocates to the nucleus when apoptosis is induced. Recombinant AIF causes chromatin condensation in isolated nuclei and large-scale fragmentation of DNA. It induces purified mitochondria to release the apoptogenic proteins cytochrome c and caspase-9. Microinjection of AIF into the cytoplasm of intact cells induces condensation of chromatin, dissipation of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and exposure of phosphatidylserine in the plasma membrane. None of these effects is prevented by the wide-ranging caspase inhibitor known as Z-VAD.fmk. Overexpression of Bcl-2, which controls the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pores, prevents the release of AIF from the mitochondrion but does not affect its apoptogenic activity. These results indicate that AIF is a mitochondrial effector of apoptotic cell death.
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            ASK1 is required for sustained activations of JNK/p38 MAP kinases and apoptosis.

            Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (ASK) 1 is activated in response to various cytotoxic stresses including TNF, Fas and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H(2)O(2), and activates c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38. However, the roles of JNK and p38 signaling pathways during apoptosis have been controversial. Here we show that by deleting ASK1 in mice, TNF- and H(2)O(2)-induced sustained activations of JNK and p38 are lost in ASK1(-/-) embryonic fibroblasts, and that ASK1(-/-) cells are resistant to TNF- and H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis. TNF- but not Fas-induced apoptosis requires ROS-dependent activation of ASK1-JNK/p38 pathways. Thus, ASK1 is selectively required for TNF- and oxidative stress-induced sustained activations of JNK/p38 and apoptosis.
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              Organization and regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways.

              Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are components of a three kinase regulatory cascade. There are multiple members of each component family of kinases in the MAPK module. Specificity of regulation is achieved by organization of MAPK modules, in part, by use of scaffolding and anchoring proteins. Scaffold proteins bring together specific kinases for selective activation, sequestration and localization of signaling complexes. The recent elucidation of scaffolding mechanisms for MAPK pathways has begun to solve the puzzle of how specificity in signaling can be achieved for each MAPK pathway in different cell types and in response to different stimuli. As new MAPK members are defined, determining their organization in kinase modules will be critical in understanding their select role in cellular regulation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2002
                June 2002
                22 August 2008
                : 39
                : 3
                : 191-207
                Affiliations
                Department of Physiology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, N.Y., USA
                Article
                63685 J Vasc Res 2002;39:191–207
                10.1159/000063685
                12097818
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 139, Pages: 17
                Categories
                Review

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