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      Plasma Soluble Fas and Soluble Fas Ligand in ChronicGlomerulo nephritis

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          Abstract

          It has been reported that glomerular cells with apoptosis and positive Fas immunoreactivity are seen in proliferative glomerulonephritis (PGN). Fas induces apoptosis when it binds to Fas ligand (Fas-L) or soluble Fas-L (sFas-L). However, soluble Fas (sFas) blocks apoptosis by inhibiting binding between Fas and Fas-L or sFas-L. That is, Fas, Fas-L, and sFas-L are inducers of apoptosis, but sFas is an inhibitor of apoptosis. We studied the relationship between the plasma levels of sFas and sFas-L in 32 patients with various types of adult chronic glomerulonephritis. Patients with serum creatinine levels >1.5 mg/dl (132.6 µmol/l) were excluded. The plasma levels of sFas-L were within the normal limits in all patients. The plasma levels of sFas in the patients with minimal-change (n = 8) and membranous nephropathy (n = 7) were similar to the age- and sex-matched controls. However, the plasma sFas levels were significantly elevated in patients with mesangial PGN (n = 10) and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (n = 7)(3.4 ± 0.9 and 3.9 ± 1.5 ng/ml, respectively) as compared with the age- and sex-matched controls (controls: 2.1 ± 0.4 and 2.2 ± 0.6 ng/ml, respectively). In PGN, according to increase of histological grade and decrease of creatinine clearance, the number of TUNEL-positive cells in glomeruli is decreased in spite of an increase of the Fas positivity, and plasma sFas is increased. The degree of proliferative change is determined by the balance between proliferation and apoptosis and/or necrosis. Therefore, increased plasma sFas in PGN may inhibit apoptosis in glomeruli and may be one of the progressing factors in PGN. Thus, we conclude that an increase in plasma sFas levels is important to the protection of apoptosis in PGN.

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          Most cited references 6

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          The TNF receptor superfamily of cellular and viral proteins: activation, costimulation, and death.

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            Molecular cloning and expression of the Fas ligand, a novel member of the tumor necrosis factor family.

            The Fas antigen (Fas) belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/nerve growth factor receptor family, and it mediates apoptosis. Using a soluble form of mouse Fas, prepared by fusion with human immunoglobulin Fc, Fas ligand was detected on the cell surface of a cytotoxic T cell hybridoma, PC60-d10S. A cell population that highly expresses Fas ligand was sorted using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter, and its cDNA was isolated from the sorted cells by expression cloning. The amino acid sequence indicated that Fas ligand is a type II transmembrane protein that belongs to the TNF family. The recombinant Fas ligand expressed in COS cells induced apoptosis in Fas-expressing target cells. Northern hybridization revealed that Fas ligand is expressed in activated splenocytes and thymocytes, consistent with its involvement in T cell-mediated cytotoxicity and in several nonlymphoid tissues, such as testis.
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              Metalloproteinase-mediated release of human Fas ligand

              Fas ligand (FasL) is a type II integral membrane protein homologous with tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Recent studies indicate that TNF is processed to yield the soluble cytokine by metalloproteinases at the cell surface of activated macrophages and T cells. In the present study, we investigated whether FasL is also released by metalloproteinases. Treatment with hydroxamic acid inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases specifically led to accumulation of membrane-type FasL (p40) on the surface of human FasL cDNA transfectants and activated human T cells, as estimated by surface immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation with newly established anti-human FasL monoclonal antibodies. This surface accumulation of mFasL was associated with the decrease of soluble FasL (p27) in the supernatant as estimated by quantitative ELISA and immunoprecipitation with anti-human FasL monoclonal antibodies. These results indicate that human FasL is efficiently released from the cell surface by metalloproteinases like TNF.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEF
                Nephron
                10.1159/issn.1660-8151
                Nephron
                S. Karger AG
                1660-8151
                2235-3186
                1998
                October 1998
                23 September 1998
                : 80
                : 2
                : 153-161
                Affiliations
                a 2nd Department of Internal Medicine and b Department of Laboratory Medicine, Gifu University School of Medicine, and c Department of Nephrology, Gifu Prefectural Hospital, Gifu, d Kyoto Women’s University, Kyoto, Japan
                Article
                45159 Nephron 1998;80:153–161
                10.1159/000045159
                9736812
                © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, References: 35, Pages: 9
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/45159
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Chronic glomerulonephritis, Signal transduction, Apoptosis

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