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      'Beauty and the beast' in infection: How immune-endocrine interactions regulate systemic metabolism in the context of infection.

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          Abstract

          The immune and endocrine systems ensure two vital functions in the body. The immune system protects us from lethal pathogens, whereas the endocrine system ensures proper metabolic function of peripheral organs by regulating systemic homeostasis. These two systems were long thought to operate independently. The immune system uses cytokines and immune receptors, whereas the endocrine system uses hormones to regulate metabolism. However, recent findings show that the immune and endocrine systems closely interact, especially regarding regulation of glucose metabolism. In response to pathogen encounter, cytokines modify responsiveness of peripheral organs to endocrine signals, resulting in altered levels of blood hormones such as insulin, which promotes the ability of the body to fight infection. Here we provide an overview of recent literature describing various mechanisms, which the immune system utilizes to modify endocrine regulation of systemic metabolism. Moreover, we will describe how these immune-endocrine interactions derail in the context of obesity. From a clinical perspective we will elaborate how infection and obesity aggravate the development of metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus type 2 in humans. In summary, this review provides a comprehensive overview of immune-induced changes in systemic metabolism following infection, with a focus on regulation of glucose metabolism.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Eur J Immunol
          European journal of immunology
          Wiley
          1521-4141
          0014-2980
          July 2019
          : 49
          : 7
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Histology and Embryology, University of Rijeka School of Medicine, Rijeka, Croatia.
          [2 ] Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Clinical hospital center Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia.
          Article
          10.1002/eji.201847895
          31106860
          20064a46-56c7-476c-8179-1911728638ce
          © 2019 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
          History

          diabetes,glucose,infection,insulin resistance,metabolic disease

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