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      Effectiveness of Ripasudil, a Rho-Associated Coiled/Coil-Containing Protein Kinase Inhibitor, in Improving Retinoschisis and Cystic-Like Foveal Cavities in Eyes with X-Linked Retinoschisis

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          Abstract

          This is the first reported case of a successful resolution of cystic-like foveal cavities in eyes with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) treated with topical ripasudil hydrochloride hydrate, a Rho-associated coiled/coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor. A chart review was performed on 1 patient to collect all relevant clinical information and the optical coherence tomographic (OCT) images. A healthy 18-year-old young man presented with bilateral visual disturbances. The patient was diagnosed with XLRS from the spoke-wheel pattern around the macula, negative electroretinograms, and retinoschisis with cystic-like foveal cavities in the OCT images. Significant reductions of the retinoschisis and cystic-like cavities were observed after treatment with topical ripasudil. This is the first case of XLRS that had a resolution of cystic-like foveal cavities after topical ripasudil, a ROCK inhibitor. Since many XLRS patients have a worsening of their visual acuities due to the progressive nature of retinoschisis and cystic-like foveal cavities, topical ripasudil offers a potential treatment option.

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          Most cited references 17

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          X linked retinoschisis.

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            Inactivation of the murine X-linked juvenile retinoschisis gene, Rs1h, suggests a role of retinoschisin in retinal cell layer organization and synaptic structure.

            Deleterious mutations in RS1 encoding retinoschisin are associated with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (RS), a common form of macular degeneration in males. The disorder is characterized by a negative electroretinogram pattern and by a splitting of the inner retina. To gain further insight into the function of the retinoschisin protein and its role in the cellular pathology of RS, we have generated knockout mice deficient in Rs1h, the murine ortholog of the human RS1 gene. We show that pathologic changes in hemizygous Rs1h(-/Y) male mice are evenly distributed across the retina, apparently contrasting with the macula-dominated features in human. Similar functional anomalies in human and Rs1h(-/Y) mice, however, suggest that both conditions are a disease of the entire retina affecting the organization of the retinal cell layers as well as structural properties of the retinal synapse.
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              Functional implications of the spectrum of mutations found in 234 cases with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis. The Retinoschisis Consortium.

              (1998)
              X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) is the most common cause of juvenile macular degeneration in males, resulting in vision loss early in life. The gene involved in XLRS was identified recently. It encodes a protein with a disoidin domain, suggested to be involved in cell-cell interactions. We have screened the gene for mutations in 234 familial and sporadic retinoschisis cases and identified 82 different mutations in 214 (91%). Thirty one mutations were found more than once, i.e. 2-10 times, with the exception of the 214G-->A mutation which was found in 34 apparently unrelated cases. The origin of the patients, the linkage data and the site of the mutations (mainly CG dinucleotides) indicate that most recurrent mutations had independent origins and thus suggest the existence of a significant new mutation rate in XLRS1. The mutations identified cover the entire spectrum, from small intra-genic deletions (7%), to nonsense (6%), missense (75%), small frameshifting insertions/deletions (6%) and splice site mutations (6%). Since, regardless of the mutation type, no females with a typical RS phenotype were identified, RS seems to be caused by loss-of-function mutations only. Mutations occurred non-randomly, with hotspots at several CG dinucleotides and a C6stretch. Exons 1-3 contained few, mainly translation-truncating mutations, arguing against an important functional role for this segment of the protein. Exons 4-6, encoding the discoidin domain, contained most, mainly missense mutations. An alignment of 32 discoidin domain proteins was constructed to reveal the consensus sequence and to deduce the functional importance of the missense mutations identified. The mutation analysis revealed a high preponderance of mutations involving or creating cysteine residues, pointing to sites important for the tertiary folding and/or protein function, and highlights several amino acids which may be involved in XLRS1-specific protein-protein interactions. Despite the enormous mutation heterogeneity, patients have relatively uniform clinical manifestations although with great intra-familial variation in age at onset and progression.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                COP
                COP
                10.1159/issn.1663-2699
                Case Reports in Ophthalmology
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2699
                2020
                May – August 2020
                06 August 2020
                : 11
                : 2
                : 411-417
                Affiliations
                Department of Ophthalmology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Japan
                Author notes
                *Masahiko Sugimoto, Department of Ophthalmology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-174 Edobashi, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan), sugmochi@clin.medic.mie-u.ac.jp
                Article
                509261 Case Rep Ophthalmol 2020;11:411–417
                10.1159/000509261
                7506235
                © 2020 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Case Report

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