The present study purposed to investigate the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of the therapeutic NZ8123-HPV16-optiE6 vaccine, following oral vaccination. The safety and tolerability were evaluated. Specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and vaginal IgA antibodies were calculated by ELISA, and E6-specific IFN-γ-secreting T cells were counted by enzyme-linked immune absorbent spot (ELISpot) assay in cervical lymphocytes and PBMC samples. The vaccine was well tolerated, and no serious adverse effects were observed in vaccine recipients. Statistical analysis showed that all vaccine groups had significant increases in antibody levels at day 60 after baseline. The time to peak activation in E6-specific IFN-γ-secreting CD8 + CTL responses was seen at month 1 after last vaccination. According to the results, the humoral immune and cell-mediated responses for the vaccine groups that received 5 × 10 9 and 1 × 10 10 CFU/mL of vaccine were similar and were higher than those of the 1 × 10 9 CFU/mL group, indicating the dose-dependency of the NZ8123-HPV16-optiE6 vaccine following oral administration. Low antibody levels compared with the placebo groups were recorded at month 6 after the last vaccination. Interestingly, long-term E6-specific CTL responses were observed during follow-up. It was concluded that oral immunization with the NZ8123-HPV-16-optiE6 vaccine is safe, induces persistent immunity, and is reasonably well tolerated.