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      Bacterial and fungal gut communities of Agrilus mali at different developmental stages and fed different diets

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      Scientific Reports

      Nature Publishing Group UK

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          Abstract

          Agrilus mali (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive wood borer pest that has caused considerable damage to the Xinjiang wild fruit forest. In this study, we investigated the bacterial and fungal intestinal microbial communities of A. mali during different developmental stages, including larvae, pupae and newly eclosed adults or fed different diets (leaves of Malus halliana and Malus pumila) using Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that microbial alpha diversity first increased and then decreased during the developmental stages, with the most dominant bacteria and fungi exhibiting the dynamic patterns “Decrease”, “Increase” and “Fluctuation”. With respect to the different diets, the bacterial communities were similar between the newly eclosed adults and adults fed M. pumila leaves, while the structure of the fungal communities showed great differences between newly eclosed adults and adults fed different diets. Through a co-correlation network analysis, we observed complex microbial interactions among bacterial and fungal taxa that were associated with potential diverse functions and intricate biological processes in the intestinal microbiota of A. mali. Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that the invasive insect A. mali harbours diverse, dynamic, and presumably multifunctional microbial communities, an understanding of which could improve our ability to develop more effective management approaches to control A. mali.

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          Most cited references 60

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            Metagenomics and 16S pyrosequencing have enabled the study of ecosystem structure and dynamics to great depth and accuracy. Co-occurrence and correlation patterns found in these data sets are increasingly used for the prediction of species interactions in environments ranging from the oceans to the human microbiome. In addition, parallelized co-culture assays and combinatorial labelling experiments allow high-throughput discovery of cooperative and competitive relationships between species. In this Review, we describe how these techniques are opening the way towards global ecosystem network prediction and the development of ecosystem-wide dynamic models.
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              The gut microbiota of insects - diversity in structure and function.

              Insect guts present distinctive environments for microbial colonization, and bacteria in the gut potentially provide many beneficial services to their hosts. Insects display a wide range in degree of dependence on gut bacteria for basic functions. Most insect guts contain relatively few microbial species as compared to mammalian guts, but some insects harbor large gut communities of specialized bacteria. Others are colonized only opportunistically and sparsely by bacteria common in other environments. Insect digestive tracts vary extensively in morphology and physicochemical properties, factors that greatly influence microbial community structure. One obstacle to the evolution of intimate associations with gut microorganisms is the lack of dependable transmission routes between host individuals. Here, social insects, such as termites, ants, and bees, are exceptions: social interactions provide opportunities for transfer of gut bacteria, and some of the most distinctive and consistent gut communities, with specialized beneficial functions in nutrition and protection, have been found in social insect species. Still, gut bacteria of other insects have also been shown to contribute to nutrition, protection from parasites and pathogens, modulation of immune responses, and communication. The extent of these roles is still unclear and awaits further studies. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                limenglou@hotmail.com
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                23 October 2018
                23 October 2018
                2018
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1760 4150, GRID grid.144022.1, Laboratory of Forestry Pests Biological Control, College of Forestry, , Northwest A&F University, ; Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 China
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2256 9319, GRID grid.11135.37, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, , Peking University, ; Beijing, 100871 China
                Article
                34127
                10.1038/s41598-018-34127-x
                6199299
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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