Agrilus mali (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive wood borer pest that has caused considerable damage to the Xinjiang wild fruit forest. In this study, we investigated the bacterial and fungal intestinal microbial communities of A. mali during different developmental stages, including larvae, pupae and newly eclosed adults or fed different diets (leaves of Malus halliana and Malus pumila) using Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that microbial alpha diversity first increased and then decreased during the developmental stages, with the most dominant bacteria and fungi exhibiting the dynamic patterns “Decrease”, “Increase” and “Fluctuation”. With respect to the different diets, the bacterial communities were similar between the newly eclosed adults and adults fed M. pumila leaves, while the structure of the fungal communities showed great differences between newly eclosed adults and adults fed different diets. Through a co-correlation network analysis, we observed complex microbial interactions among bacterial and fungal taxa that were associated with potential diverse functions and intricate biological processes in the intestinal microbiota of A. mali. Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that the invasive insect A. mali harbours diverse, dynamic, and presumably multifunctional microbial communities, an understanding of which could improve our ability to develop more effective management approaches to control A. mali.