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      Do Otimismo Explicativo ao Disposicional: a Perspectiva da Psicologia Positiva Translated title: From Explanatory to Disposicional Optimism: a Perspective from Positive Psychology Translated title: Del Optimismo Explicativo al Disposicional: la Perspectiva de la Psicología Positiva

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          Abstract

          <p>O otimismo, a partir da sabedoria popular, passando pelas discussões filosóficas até os estudos empíricos em Psicologia está fortemente associado a uma visão positiva da vida, especialmente diante de adversidades. O presente trabalho visa apresentar duas abordagens teóricas e de investigação empírica sobre o otimismo no campo da Psicologia Positiva. A perspectiva de Seligman define o otimismo como aprendido, relacionado aos estilos explicativos, enquanto Scheier e Carver compreendem o otimismo a partir de uma dimensão disposicional, baseado em expectativas generalizadas. No presente estudo, salientam-se as diferentes posições teóricas e metodológicas, os estudos realizados em diferentes culturas e com variáveis, como autoestima e personalidade.</p>

          Translated abstract

          <p>Optimism from the view of folk's wisdom, through the philosophical discussions to empirical studies in Psychology is strongly associated with a positive outlook on life, especially in light of disruptive events. This paper presents two theoretical approaches and empirical research on optimism in the field of Positive Psychology. The prospect of Martin Seligman defines optimism as learned, related to explanatory style, while Michael Scheier and Charles Carver understand optimism from a dispositional dimension, based on generalized expectations. Different theoretical and methodological assumptions of these theories are presented, as well as studies from both theories in different cultures and with other variables, such as self-esteem and personality.</p>

          Translated abstract

          <p>El optimismo desde la sabiduría popular, pasando por las discusiones filosóficas hasta los estudios empíricos en Psicología, está fuertemente asociado a una visión positiva de la vida, especialmente frente a las adversidades. El presente trabajo buscó presentar dos abordajes teóricos y de investigación empírica sobre el optimismo en el campo de la Psicología Positiva. La perspectiva de Seligman define el optimismo como aprendido, relacionado a los estilos explicativos, mientras que Scheier y Carver comprenden el optimismo a partir de una dimensión disposicional, basado en expectativas generalizadas. En el presente estudio se destacan las diferentes posiciones teóricas y metodológicas, los estudios realizados en diferentes culturas y con variables, como autoestima y personalidad.</p>

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          Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): a reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test.

          Research on dispositional optimism as assessed by the Life Orientation Test (Scheier & Carver, 1985) has been challenged on the grounds that effects attributed to optimism are indistinguishable from those of unmeasured third variables, most notably, neuroticism. Data from 4,309 subjects show that associations between optimism and both depression and aspects of coping remain significant even when the effects of neuroticism, as well as the effects of trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem, are statistically controlled. Thus, the Life Orientation Test does appear to possess adequate predictive and discriminant validity. Examination of the scale on somewhat different grounds, however, does suggest that future applications can benefit from its revision. Thus, we also describe a minor modification to the Life Orientation Test, along with data bearing on the revised scale's psychometric properties.
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            Learned helplessness in humans: critique and reformulation.

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              Social stigma and self-esteem: The self-protective properties of stigma.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                psicousf
                PsicoUSF
                PsicoUSF
                Universidade São Francisco (Itatiba )
                1413-8271
                August 2015
                : 20
                : 2
                : 237-247
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Brazil
                Article
                S1413-82712015000200237
                10.1590/1413-82712015200205
                Product
                Product Information: website

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