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      Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-Derived Lipid Mediators and T Cell Function

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          Abstract

          Fatty acids are involved in T cell biology both as nutrients important for energy production as well as signaling molecules. In particular, polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to exhibit a range of immunomodulatory properties that progress through T cell mediated events, although the molecular mechanisms of these actions have not yet been fully elucidated. Some of these immune activities are linked to polyunsaturated fatty acid-induced alteration of the composition of cellular membranes and the consequent changes in signaling pathways linked to membrane raft-associated proteins. However, significant aspects of the polyunsaturated fatty acid bioactivities are mediated through their transformation to specific lipid mediators, products of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, or cytochrome P450 enzymatic reactions. Resulting bioactive metabolites including prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and endocannabinoids are produced by and/or act upon T leukocytes through cell surface receptors and have been shown to alter T cell activation and differentiation, proliferation, cytokine production, motility, and homing events. Detailed appreciation of the mode of action of these lipids presents opportunities for the design and development of therapeutic strategies aimed at regulating T cell function.

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          Most cited references 191

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          Phospholipase A2 enzymes: physical structure, biological function, disease implication, chemical inhibition, and therapeutic intervention.

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            Maresins: novel macrophage mediators with potent antiinflammatory and proresolving actions

            The endogenous cellular and molecular mechanisms that control acute inflammation and its resolution are of wide interest. Using self-resolving inflammatory exudates and lipidomics, we have identified a new pathway involving biosynthesis of potent antiinflammatory and proresolving mediators from the essential fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by macrophages (MΦs). During the resolution of mouse peritonitis, exudates accumulated both 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid, a known marker of 17S-D series resolvin (Rv) and protectin biosynthesis, and 14S-hydroxydocosa-4Z,7Z,10Z,12E,16Z,19Z-hexaenoic acid from endogenous DHA. Addition of either DHA or 14S-hydroperoxydocosa-4Z,7Z,10Z,12E,16Z,19Z-hexaenoic acid to activated MΦs converted these substrates to novel dihydroxy-containing products that possessed potent antiinflammatory and proresolving activity with a potency similar to resolvin E1, 5S,12R,18R-trihydroxyeicosa-6Z,8E,10E,14Z,16E-pentaenoic acid, and protectin D1, 10R,17S-dihydroxydocosa-4Z,7Z,11E,13E,15Z,19Z-hexaenoic acid. Stable isotope incorporation, intermediate trapping, and characterization of physical and biological properties of the products demonstrated a novel 14-lipoxygenase pathway, generating bioactive 7,14-dihydroxydocosa-4Z,8,10,12,16Z,19Z-hexaenoic acid, coined MΦ mediator in resolving inflammation (maresin), which enhances resolution. These findings suggest that maresins and this new metabolome may be involved in some of the beneficial actions of DHA and MΦs in tissue homeostasis, inflammation resolution, wound healing, and host defense.
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              Prostaglandin D2 Selectively Induces Chemotaxis in T Helper Type 2 Cells, Eosinophils, and Basophils via Seven-Transmembrane Receptor Crth2

              Prostaglandin (PG)D2, which has long been implicated in allergic diseases, is currently considered to elicit its biological actions through the DP receptor (DP). Involvement of DP in the formation of allergic asthma was recently demonstrated with DP-deficient mice. However, proinflammatory functions of PGD2 cannot be explained by DP alone. We show here that a seven-transmembrane receptor, CRTH2, which is preferentially expressed in T helper type 2 (Th2) cells, eosinophils, and basophils in humans, serves as the novel receptor for PGD2. In response to PGD2, CRTH2 induces intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and chemotaxis in Th2 cells in a Gαi-dependent manner. In addition, CRTH2, but not DP, mediates PGD2-dependent cell migration of blood eosinophils and basophils. Thus, PGD2 is likely involved in multiple aspects of allergic inflammation through its dual receptor systems, DP and CRTH2.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                URI : http://frontiersin.org/people/u/45025
                Journal
                Front Immunol
                Front Immunol
                Front. Immunol.
                Frontiers in Immunology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-3224
                08 January 2014
                25 February 2014
                2014
                : 5
                Affiliations
                1Manchester Pharmacy School, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, The University of Manchester , Manchester, UK
                2Centre for Biochemical Pharmacology, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London , London, UK
                Author notes

                Edited by: Karsten Sauer, The Scripps Research Institute, USA

                Reviewed by: John J. Miles, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Australia; Sid P. Kerkar, National Cancer Institute, USA

                *Correspondence: Anna Nicolaou, Manchester Pharmacy School, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, The University of Manchester, Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, UK e-mail: anna.nicolaou@ 123456manchester.ac.uk

                This article was submitted to T Cell Biology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Immunology.

                Article
                10.3389/fimmu.2014.00075
                3933826
                24611066
                Copyright © 2014 Nicolaou, Mauro, Urquhart and Marelli-Berg.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 215, Pages: 15, Words: 13763
                Categories
                Immunology
                Review Article

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