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      Quantitative ethnoveterinary study on plant resource utilization by indigenous communities in high-altitude regions

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          Abstract

          For millennia, ethnic knowledge has been intricately tied to local biodiversity and woven into the fabric of rural communities. Growing scientific evidence suggests that merging ethnic knowledge with new scientific findings can lead to socially acceptable and environmentally friendly approaches essential for the long-term prosperity of local communities. In the high-altitude region, where livestock raising is a key income source, and plant-based utilization for ethno-veterinary practices is widely practiced. In this context, this study was conducted with the aim of documenting the ethno-veterinary use of plant resources in different bio-geographical regions of Jammu and Kashmir's Himalayas (J & KH). Semi-structured interviews and group discussions were used to collect information. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Pearson correlation were conducted to analyze the data. We documented 148 species from 53 families that locals used for various purposes: medicine, fodder, tonic, antidote, magic, and also used to protect themselves from ectoparasite such as Pediculus humanus capitis by the local inhabitants. There were significant differences in the relative usage of plant resources across the three biogeographic regions. Comparatively, the highest number (41%) of plant species were used for ethnoveterinary in the Jammu region, while the lowest number (28%) of species were used in Kashmir. Across the regions, Kashmir and Jammu had the highest level of species similarity (17%), while Jammu and Ladakh had the lowest (1%). A cross-regional assessment of plant resources revealed that 18% of plants were shared among the regions. The reported use of Amaranthus blitum, Morus alba, Ficus palmata, Vitex negundo, Juniperus semiglobosa, Ulmus wallichiana , and Rumex nepalensis are novel for the ethno-veterinary uses of this part of the Himalayan region. The various dry unique traditional fodder preparations ( gaaslov, gass khor, pan baath, kaandbaath, Lovgooad, Karb, and Phungma) from plant resources are reported for the first time from the Himalayan region and can be ascribed to the novelty of this study. Plant resources were not only a source of fodder and medicine but also presented themselves as an opportunity for livelihood generation. Therefore, our findings bridge the knowledge gap by documenting key ethnoveterinary applications of native plant species from the study region that are used to cure livestock diseases and disorders by the mountain inhabitants.

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          A cross-cultural analysis of Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh (India) medicinal plant use.

          Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) is a predominantly Himalayan state in the north-western part of India. It has three geographically distinct divisions viz., Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh, which are immensely rich in their biological and cultural diversity. Medicinal plants are an important element of indigenous medical system of the region. The main goal of the present article is to examine the use of ethnomedicinal plants in three divisions of J&K and to discuss cross-cultural consensus on the use of medicinal plants in these divisions. The article also discusses the gaps in the current state of knowledge on ethnomedicinal plants of the region and gives recommendations for the future studies.
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            Use of participatory epidemiology to compare the clinical veterinary knowledge of pastoralists and veterinarians in East Africa.

            A Catley (2006)
            Because of severe resource and logistical constraints in large areas of Africa, disease surveillance systems need to maximize the use of information provided by livestock keepers and make correct interpretations of indigenous livestock knowledge. This paper describes the use of participatory epidemiology (PE) to compare the names, clinical signs and epidemiological features of cattle diseases as perceived by pastoralists and veterinarians. Using results from two previous studies with pastoralists in southern Sudan and Kenya, provisional translations of local disease names into modem veterinary terminology were used to develop a matrix scoring method for use with veterinarians. Matrix scoring data from pastoralists and veterinarians were then compared using simple visual comparison of summarized matrices, hierarchical cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling. The results showed good agreement between pastoralists' and veterinarians' disease names and diagnostic criteria. The matrix scoring method was easy to use and appropriate for use in under-resourced areas with minimal professional support or laboratory services. Matrix scoring could be used to assist livestock disease surveillance workers to design surveillance systems that make better use of pastoralist's indigenous knowledge and correctly interpret local disease names. The method should be combined with conventional veterinary investigation methods where feasible.
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              Botanical ethnoveterinary therapies in three districts of the Lesser Himalayas of Pakistan

              Background Ethnoveterinary knowledge is highly significant for persistence of traditional community-based approaches to veterinary care. This is of particular importance in the context of developing and emerging countries, where animal health (that of livestock, especially) is crucial to local economies and food security. The current survey documents the traditional veterinary uses of medicinal plants in the Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. Methods Data were collected through interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and by administering questionnaires. A total of 105 informants aged between 20–75 years old who were familiar with livestock health issues (i.e. farmers, shepherds, housewives and herbalists) participated in the study. Results A total of 89 botanical taxa, belonging to 46 families, were reported to have ethnoveterinary applications. The most quoted families were Poaceae (6 taxa), Fabaceae (6), Asteraceae (5), and Polygonaceae (5). Adhatoda vasica was the most cited species (43%), followed by Trachyspermum ammi (37%), and Zanthoxylum armatum var. armatum (36%). About 126 medications were recorded against more than 50 veterinary conditions grouped into seven categories. The highest cultural index values were recorded for Trachyspermum ammi, Curcuma longa, Melia azedarach, Zanthoxylum armatum var. armatum and Adhatoda vasica. The highest informant consensus factor was found for pathologies related to respiratory and reproductive disorders. Comparison with the local plant-based remedies used in human folk medicine revealed that many of remedies were used in similar ways in local human phytotherapy. Comparison with other field surveys conducted in surrounding areas demonstrated that approximately one-half of the recorded plants uses are novel to the ethnoveterinary literature of the Himalayas. Conclusion The current survey shows a remarkable resilience of ethnoveterinary botanical knowledge in the study area. Most of the species reported for ethnoveterinary applications are wild and under threat. Thus, not only is it imperative to conserve traditional local knowledge of folk veterinary therapies for bio-cultural conservation motives, but also to assist with in-situ and ex-situ environmental conservation initiatives, which are urgently needed. Future studies that focus on the validation of efficacy of these ethnoveterinary remedies can help to substantiate emic concepts regarding the management of animal health care and for rural development programs.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Vet Sci
                Front Vet Sci
                Front. Vet. Sci.
                Frontiers in Veterinary Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2297-1769
                06 October 2022
                2022
                : 9
                : 944046
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Clybay Research Private Limited , Bangalore, India
                [2] 2Department of Ethnobotany, Institute of Botany, Ilia State University , Tbilisi, Georgia
                [3] 3Zonal Educational Office , Shopian, India
                [4] 4Department of Botany, University of Gujrat , Gujrat, Pakistan
                [5] 5Department of Botany, Women University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir , Bagh, Pakistan
                [6] 6School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Science, University of Birmingham , Birmingham, United Kingdom
                [7] 7National Center for Wildlife , Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                [8] 8Department of Botany, University of Okara , Punjab, Pakistan
                [9] 9Department of Entomology and Nematology, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida , Gainesville, FL, United States
                [10] 10Department of Plant Biology, Institute of Environmental Biology, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences , Wrocław, Poland
                [11] 11Biotechnology of Macromolecules, Institute of Natural Products and Agrobiology, CSIC-Spanish Research Council , Madrid, Spain
                Author notes

                Edited by: Paola Badino, University of Turin, Italy

                Reviewed by: Airy Gras, University of Barcelona, Spain; Maria Johanna Groot, Wageningen University and Research, Netherlands; Begum Yurdakok Dikmen, Ankara University, Turkey

                *Correspondence: Muhammad Shoaib Amjad malikshoaib1165@ 123456yahoo.com
                Antonio Morales-de la Nuez morales.delanuez@ 123456ipna.csic.es

                This article was submitted to Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Veterinary Science

                Article
                10.3389/fvets.2022.944046
                9583879
                36277063
                2049a4fe-7d08-45f4-895b-67e6466740a7
                Copyright © 2022 Haq, Yaqoob, Majeed, Amjad, Hassan, Ahmad, Waheed, Bussmann, Calixto, Proćków, de la Lastra and Morales-de la Nuez.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 14 May 2022
                : 11 August 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 11, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 69, Pages: 14, Words: 7931
                Categories
                Veterinary Science
                Original Research

                medicinal,magical,fodder preparations,livelihood,ethnic communities,himalayas

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