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      Insect olfaction and the evolution of receptor tuning

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      Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution
      Frontiers Media SA

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          The operated Markov´s chains in economy (discrete chains of Markov with the income)

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            Combinatorial receptor codes for odors.

            The discriminatory capacity of the mammalian olfactory system is such that thousands of volatile chemicals are perceived as having distinct odors. Here we used a combination of calcium imaging and single-cell RT-PCR to identify odorant receptors (ORs) for odorants with related structures but varied odors. We found that one OR recognizes multiple odorants and that one odorant is recognized by multiple ORs, but that different odorants are recognized by different combinations of ORs. Thus, the olfactory system uses a combinatorial receptor coding scheme to encode odor identities. Our studies also indicate that slight alterations in an odorant, or a change in its concentration, can change its "code," potentially explaining how such changes can alter perceived odor quality.
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              Insect host location: a volatile situation.

              Locating a host plant is crucial for a phytophagous (herbivorous) insect to fulfill its nutritional requirements and to find suitable oviposition sites. Insects can locate their hosts even though the host plants are often hidden among an array of other plants. Plant volatiles play an important role in this host-location process. The recognition of a host plant by these olfactory signals could occur by using either species-specific compounds or specific ratios of ubiquitous compounds. Currently, most studies favor the second scenario, with strong evidence that plant discrimination is due to central processing of olfactory signals by the insect, rather than their initial detection. Furthermore, paired or clustered olfactory receptor neurons might enable fine-scale spatio-temporal resolution of the complex signals encountered when ubiquitous compounds are used.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution
                Front. Ecol. Evol.
                Frontiers Media SA
                2296-701X
                May 20 2015
                May 20 2015
                : 3
                Article
                10.3389/fevo.2015.00053
                20762d13-41b3-448b-97fa-7d1efa436247
                © 2015
                History

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