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      Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management (submit here)

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      Clinical Perspectives on Cardiac Rehabilitation After Heart Failure in Elderly Patients with Frailty: A Narrative Review


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          The purpose of this narrative review is to examine rehabilitation modalities for patients with heart failure and Frailty who require comprehensive intervention. Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 16% of global mortality. Due to population growing and aging, the total number of heart failure patients continues to rise, a condition known as the heart failure pandemic. Furthermore, frailty has been associated with an increased risk for heart failure and increased morbidity and mortality. The 2021 update of the 2017 ACC expert consensus decision pathway for optimization of HF treatment has become more concerning, citing frailty as one of the 10 most important issues associated with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Frailty and heart failure share common pathological mechanisms and are associated with poor clinical outcomes. Most studies of frailty in patients with heart failure primarily focus on physical frailty, and associations between psycho-psychological and social factors such as cognitive dysfunction and social isolation have also been reported. These results suggest that a more comprehensive assessment of frailty is important to determine the risk in patients with heart failure. Therefore, mechanisms of the three domains, including not only physical frailty but also cognitive, psychological, spiritual, and social aspects, should be understood. In addition to interventions in these three domains, nutritional and pharmacological interventions are also important and require tailor-made interventions for the widely varied conditions associated with heart failure and frailty. Although several studies have shown a relationship between frailty and prognosis in patients with heart failure, interventions to improve the prognosis have not yet been established. Further information is needed on frailty intervention by a multidisciplinary team to improve the prognosis.

          Most cited references133

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          Sarcopenia: revised European consensus on definition and diagnosis

          Abstract Background in 2010, the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) published a sarcopenia definition that aimed to foster advances in identifying and caring for people with sarcopenia. In early 2018, the Working Group met again (EWGSOP2) to update the original definition in order to reflect scientific and clinical evidence that has built over the last decade. This paper presents our updated findings. Objectives to increase consistency of research design, clinical diagnoses and ultimately, care for people with sarcopenia. Recommendations sarcopenia is a muscle disease (muscle failure) rooted in adverse muscle changes that accrue across a lifetime; sarcopenia is common among adults of older age but can also occur earlier in life. In this updated consensus paper on sarcopenia, EWGSOP2: (1) focuses on low muscle strength as a key characteristic of sarcopenia, uses detection of low muscle quantity and quality to confirm the sarcopenia diagnosis, and identifies poor physical performance as indicative of severe sarcopenia; (2) updates the clinical algorithm that can be used for sarcopenia case-finding, diagnosis and confirmation, and severity determination and (3) provides clear cut-off points for measurements of variables that identify and characterise sarcopenia. Conclusions EWGSOP2's updated recommendations aim to increase awareness of sarcopenia and its risk. With these new recommendations, EWGSOP2 calls for healthcare professionals who treat patients at risk for sarcopenia to take actions that will promote early detection and treatment. We also encourage more research in the field of sarcopenia in order to prevent or delay adverse health outcomes that incur a heavy burden for patients and healthcare systems.
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            2021 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure

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              Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis

              The European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) developed a practical clinical definition and consensus diagnostic criteria for age-related sarcopenia. EWGSOP included representatives from four participant organisations, i.e. the European Geriatric Medicine Society, the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics—European Region and the International Association of Nutrition and Aging. These organisations endorsed the findings in the final document. The group met and addressed the following questions, using the medical literature to build evidence-based answers: (i) What is sarcopenia? (ii) What parameters define sarcopenia? (iii) What variables reflect these parameters, and what measurement tools and cut-off points can be used? (iv) How does sarcopenia relate to cachexia, frailty and sarcopenic obesity? For the diagnosis of sarcopenia, EWGSOP recommends using the presence of both low muscle mass + low muscle function (strength or performance). EWGSOP variously applies these characteristics to further define conceptual stages as ‘presarcopenia’, ‘sarcopenia’ and ‘severe sarcopenia’. EWGSOP reviewed a wide range of tools that can be used to measure the specific variables of muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance. Our paper summarises currently available data defining sarcopenia cut-off points by age and gender; suggests an algorithm for sarcopenia case finding in older individuals based on measurements of gait speed, grip strength and muscle mass; and presents a list of suggested primary and secondary outcome domains for research. Once an operational definition of sarcopenia is adopted and included in the mainstream of comprehensive geriatric assessment, the next steps are to define the natural course of sarcopenia and to develop and define effective treatment.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                27 October 2022
                : 18
                : 1009-1028
                [1 ]Department of Rehabilitation, Shinshu University Hospital , Matsumoto, Japan
                [2 ]Division of Occupational Therapy, School of Health Sciences, Shinshu University , Matsumoto, Nagano, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Shuhei Yamamoto, Department of Rehabilitation, Shinshu University Hospital , 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano, 390-8621, Japan, Tel +81-263-37-2836, Fax +81-263-37-2835, Email syamamoto@shinshu-u.ac.jp
                Author information
                © 2022 Tsukakoshi et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                : 09 June 2022
                : 11 September 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 7, References: 134, Pages: 20

                frailty,heart failure,rehabilitation,cardiovascular diseases
                frailty, heart failure, rehabilitation, cardiovascular diseases


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