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      Translated title: Feminist theory and medical sociology: issues for discussion Translated title: Teoría feminista y sociología médica: bases para una discusión

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          Abstract

          Se analiza la contribución de la teoría feminista a la sociología médica. En la primera parte se desarrollan los conceptos feministas más importantes: patriarcado, género, y sistema sexo/género. Se señala que cada concepto aclara aspectos sociales que han sido descuidados, aunque se reconoce que el concepto de patriarcado requiere aún de mayor desarrollo teórico. En la segunda parte se discuten los intentos del feminismo para desarrollar un nuevo conocimiento. Se discuten las ventajas de una ciencia feminista que problematice la dominación de género - que la ciencia común da por hecho -, y que permitiría una aproximación novedosa a la realidad social. Se enfatiza en la importancia de distinguir entre sexo y género, el aporte reciente de mayor relevancia para comprender la noción de ciencia feminista. Se señalan algunas de las aportaciones epistemológicas y metodológicas feministas. La tercera parte analiza las contribuciones más importantes de la teoría feminista en el campo de la sociología médica. Se indica como una de ellas a la problematización de los conceptos de "salud" y "enfermedad", así como la demostración de que son conceptos socialmente construidos como producto del orden patriarcal prevaleciente. Finalmente, se ilustra cómo el acercamiento feminista es útil para cuestionar las nociones y prácticas medicas, las que se basan en en la dominación de género y la reproducen.

          Translated abstract

          The contribution of feminist theory to medical sociology is analyzed. The first part discusses the main feminist concepts: patriarchy, gender, and sex/gender system. The article points out that such concepts illuminate social aspects that have been neglected. It is acknowledged that the concept of patriarchy requires further theoretical development. The second part discusses the feminist attempt to develop new knowledge. A "Feminist Science" would problematize gender domination, which current science takes for granted, and would allow for a new approach to social reality. The author emphasizes the importance of distinguishing between "sex" and "gender", the latter being more relevant for a correct understanding of the notion of a feminist science. Some recent feminist epistemological and methodological developments are noted. The third part analyzes the most relevant contributions of feminist theory to medical sociology. It is shown that one such contribution is the problematization of the concepts of "health" and "disease", and the demonstration that these concepts are social constructs, a product of the prevailing patriarchal order. The author illustrates how the feminist approach challenges conventional medical notions and practices, which are based and reproduced on gender domination.

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          Gender and health: an update on hypotheses and evidence.

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            The twain meet: empirical explanations of sex differences in health and mortality.

            Health statistics routinely show higher morbidity and health services use for women, while mortality rates are higher for men. This analysis empirically identifies reasons for women's poorer health. It is based on retrospective (interview) and prospective (health diaries) data from the Health In Detroit Study. Three kinds of risk factors, which may help explain females' excess, are considered: acquired risks, psychosocial aspects, and health-reporting behavior. Men and women differ markedly in acquired risks: smoking and job hazards are higher for men, but inactivity, nonemployment, stress, and many other factors are higher for women. Psychosocial aspects predispose women to more illness and health care. Women also had keener interest in the survey. When all of the risk factors are controlled, the morbidity gap narrows considerably. In fact, indicators of general and chronic health reverse to reveal higher morbidity for men. Similarly, females' excesses for therapeutic care (short- and long-term disability, medical visits, lay consultation, drug use) diminish when risks and morbidity level are controlled. They actually reverse to a male excess for disability and medical care. Though most of the unveiled male excesses are statistically nonsignificant, their pattern allows a reasonable interpretation. Our results are closely compatible with recent analyses of sex mortality differences in several California sites, which could not eliminate men's mortality excess by controlling for social factors. In conclusion, contemporary women's poorer health profile stems largely from their roles and stress (acquired risks), and to a smaller degree from their health attitudes. When social factors are taken into account, health data suggest a disadvantage for men, and mortality data maintain men's disadvantage. Do the reasons lie in biology?
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              El tráfico de mujeres: notas sobre ‘la economía política’ del sexo

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                csp
                Cadernos de Saúde Pública
                Cad. Saúde Pública
                Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Rio de Janeiro )
                1678-4464
                September 1993
                : 9
                : 3
                : 375-394
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública Mexico
                [2 ] Colegio de México México
                Article
                S0102-311X1993000300024
                208cc312-8e8c-4c42-b2de-8eb17beeba2f

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                Product

                SciELO Brazil

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0102-311X&lng=en
                Categories
                Health Policy & Services

                Public health
                Patriarcado,Género,Teoría Feminista,Epistemología,Patriarchy,Gender,Feminist Theory,Feminist Epistemology,Medical Sociology,Sociología Médica

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