This study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in the treatment of children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and to explore the related factors affecting treatment efficacy.
The current research reflects a real-world study. A total of 79 patients with ISS and 95 patients with GHD (both groups pre-puberty) who had been treated with rhGH for more than one year from January 2010 to September 2019 were included in this study. The patients were divided into two groups, ie, an ISS and a GHD group, respectively. The growth indexes, such as chronological age (CA), bone age (BA), height standard deviation score (HtSDS), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) SDS, and body mass index were recorded and compared between the two groups before and after treatment. The treatment efficacy was evaluated according to changes in HtSDS before and after treatment, and the influencing factors of clinical efficacy were analyzed using a multivariate regression model.
At the start of treatment, the differences in CA, BA, height, weight, sexual development stage, HtSDS, mid-parental height SDS, and IGF-1 SDS between the two groups were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). However, the initial dose of rhGH in the GHD group was significantly lower than in the ISS group (P < 0.001). Following rhGH treatment, the differences in CA, BA, BA/CA ratio, and IGF-1 SDS measured at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months between the ISS and GHD groups were not statistically significant, while the difference in HtSDS measured at 6 months was statistically significant. With the extension of rhGH treatment time, the annual growth rate (GV) gradually decreased, and the difference between HtSDS and the baseline gradually increased; however, the differences between the ISS and GHD groups were not statistically significant. The most important factor affecting the treatment efficacy for patients with ISS was age at the start of treatment; the most important factors affecting the treatment efficacy for patients with GHD were age and IGF-1 SDS.
Recombinant human growth hormone treatment can significantly improve the height of patients with ISS and GHD. There was no significant difference in growth rate between patients with ISS and those with GHD at relatively high doses. The common factor affecting the treatment efficacy of the two groups was the age at the start of treatment. During treatment, monitored data indicated that rhGH treatment of GHD and ISS thyroid function showed a clinical phenomenon in the form of increased free triiodothyronine, rather than hypothyroidism, which was rarely reported in existing studies.