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      Prevalence and influencing factors of co-morbid depression in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a General Hospital based study

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          Depression and diabetes have been recognized as major public health issues in China, however, no studies to date examined the factors associated with the development of depression in patients with diabetes in China. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of co-morbid depression among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and to examine the influence factors of co-morbid depression in a group of patients with type 2 DM.


          The study was conducted from March l to May 31, 2012, in the Department of Endocrinology of the First Affiliated Hospital of the General Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA). A systematic random sample of 412 type 2 DM patients aged over 18 years was selected. A structured questionnaire was used for collecting the information about socio-demographic data, lifestyle factors and clinical characteristics. Depression and social support was evaluated by using the Chinese version of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Social Support Rate Scale (SSRS), respectively. Weights and heights were measured. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was abstracted from each patient directly after the interview.


          Of the total sample, 142 patients had depression according to the BDI scores (BDI scores ≥14), the prevalence of co-morbid depression in this study population was 5.7 % (142/2500). Of which, 56 had major depression (BDI ≥ 21), and 86 had moderate depression (BDI ≥ 14&BDI < 21). Logistic regression analysis indicated that a high HbA1c level, a high BMI, low quality health insurance, and being single, were significantly associated with the development of depression. However, a family history of diabetes and a high social support level are likely protective factors.


          The prevalence of co-morbid depression was 5.7 % among Chinese subjects with type 2 DM in this study. High HbA1c level, high BMI score, being single, low social support level, and low quality health insurance were associated with the presence of depression. These findings support a recommendation for routine screening and management in China for depression in patients with diabetes, especially for those in primary care, to reduce the number of the depressed or the misrecognized depressed diabetic patients.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13098-015-0053-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 57

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          Association of depression and diabetes complications: a meta-analysis.

          The objective of this study was to examine the strength and consistency of the relationship between depression and diabetes complications in studies of type 1 and type 2 adult patients with diabetes. MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched for articles examining depression and diabetes complications in type 1 and type 2 diabetes samples published between 1975 and 1999. Meta-analytic procedures were used. Studies were reviewed for diabetes type, sample size, statistical tests, and measures of diabetes complications and depression. Significance values, weighted effect sizes r, 95% confidence intervals (CI), and tests of homogeneity of variance were calculated for the overall sample (k = 27) and for subsets of interest. A total of 27 studies (total combined N = 5374) met the inclusion criteria. A significant association was found between depression and complications of diabetes (p < .00001, z = 5.94). A moderate and significant weighted effect size (r = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.22-0.28) was calculated for all studies reporting sufficient data (k = 22). Depression was significantly associated with a variety of diabetes complications (diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, macrovascular complications, and sexual dysfunction). Effect sizes were in the small to moderate range (r = 0.17 to 0.32). These findings demonstrate a significant and consistent association of diabetes complications and depressive symptoms. Prospective, longitudinal studies are needed to identify the pathways that mediate this association.
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            Assessment of diabetes-related distress.

            To describe a new measure of psychosocial adjustment specific to diabetes, the Problem Areas in Diabetes Survey (PAID), and to present initial information on its reliability and validity. Before their routine clinic appointments, 451 female patients with type I and type II diabetes, all of whom required insulin, completed a self-report survey. Included in the survey was the PAID, a 20-item questionnaire in which each item represents a unique area of diabetes-related psychosocial distress. Each item is rated on a six-point Likert scale, reflecting the degree to which the item is perceived as currently problematic. A total scale score, hypothesized to reflect the overall level of diabetes-related emotional distress, is computed by summing the total item responses. To examine the concurrent validity of the PAID, the survey also included a series of standardized questionnaires assessing psychosocial functioning (general emotional distress, fear of hypoglycemia, and disordered eating), attitudes toward diabetes, and self-care behaviors. All subjects were assessed for HbA1, within 30 days of survey completion and again approximately 1-2 years later. Finally, long-term diabetic complications were determined through chart review. Internal reliability of the PAID was high, with good item-to-total correlations. Approximately 60% of the subject sample reported at least one serious diabetes-related concern. As expected, the PAID was positively associated with relevant psychosocial measures of distress, including general emotional distress, disordered eating, and fear of hypoglycemia, short- and long-term diabetic complications, and HbA1, and negatively associated with reported self-care behaviors. The PAID accounted for approximately 9% of the variance in HbA1. Diabetes-related emotional distress, as measured by the PAID, was found to be a unique contributor to adherence to self-care behaviors after adjustment for age, diabetes duration, and general emotional distress. In addition, the PAID was associated with HbA1 even after adjustment for age, diabetes duration, general emotional distress, and adherence to self-care behaviors. These findings suggest that the PAID, a brief, easy-to-administer instrument, may be valuable in assessing psychosocial adjustment to diabetes. In addition to high internal reliability, the consistent pattern of correlational findings indicates that the PAID is tapping into relevant aspects of emotional distress and that its particular feature, the measurement of diabetes-related emotional distress, is uniquely associated with diabetes-relevant outcomes. These data are also consistent with the hypothesis that diabetes-related emotional distress, separate from general emotional distress, is an independent and major contributor to poor adherence. Given that the study was limited to female patients using insulin, further examination of the clinical usefulness of the PAID will need to focus on more heterogeneous samples.
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              A longitudinal study of affective and anxiety disorders, depressive affect and diabetes distress in adults with Type 2 diabetes.

              To report the prevalence and correlates of affective and anxiety disorders, depressive affect and diabetes distress over time. In a non-interventional study, 506 patients with Type 2 diabetes were assessed three times over 18 months (9-month intervals) for: major depressive disorder (MDD), general anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PANIC), dysthymia (DYS) (Composite International Diagnostic Interview); depressive affect [Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D)]; Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS); HbA(1c); and demographic data. Diabetic patients displayed high rates of affective and anxiety disorders over time, relative to community adults: 60% higher for MDD, 123% for GAD, 85% for PANIC, 7% for DYS. The prevalence of depressive affect and distress was 60-737% higher than of affective and anxiety disorders. The prevalence of individual patients with an affective and anxiety disorder over 18 months was double the rate assessed at any single wave. The increase for CES-D and DDS was about 60%. Persistence of CES-D and DDS disorders over time was significantly greater than persistence of affective and anxiety disorders, which tended to be episodic. Younger age, female gender and high comorbidities were related to persistence of all conditions over time. HbA(1c) was positively related to CES-D and DDS, but not to affective and anxiety disorders over time. The high prevalence of comorbid disorders and the persistence of depressive affect and diabetes distress over time highlight the need for both repeated mental health and diabetes distress screening at each patient contact, not just periodically, particularly for younger adults, women and those with complications/comorbidities.

                Author and article information

                +86 10 58801518 ,
                +86 10 58805031 ,
                Diabetol Metab Syndr
                Diabetol Metab Syndr
                Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
                BioMed Central (London )
                30 June 2015
                30 June 2015
                : 7
                [ ]School of Social Development and Public Policy, China Institute of Health, Beijing Normal University, 19, Xinjiekou Wai Street, Beijing, 100875 China
                [ ]Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester School of Medicine & Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 USA
                [ ]School of Public Administration, Yunnan University of Finance and Economics, Kunming, 650221 China
                [ ]Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital of the General Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), Beijing, 100853 China
                [ ]Department of Sociology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, 430074 China
                [ ]School of Government, Beijing Normal University, 19, Xinjiekou Wai Street, Beijing, 100875 China
                © Zhang et al. 2015

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                Nutrition & Dietetics

                depression, prevalence, risk factors, type 2 diabetes mellitus


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