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      Impact of histological subtype on survival in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer that were treated with definitive radiotherapy: adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous carcinoma versus squamous cell carcinoma

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          Abstract

          Objective

          To compare the survival outcomes of patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous carcinoma (AC/ASC) among patients with locally advanced cervical cancer that were treated with definitive radiotherapy.

          Methods

          The baseline characteristics and outcome data of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who were treated with definitive radiotherapy between November 1993 and February 2014 were collected and retrospectively reviewed. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to investigate the prognostic significance of AC/ASC histology.

          Results

          The patients with AC/ASC of the cervix exhibited significantly shorter overall survival (OS) (p=0.004) and progression-free survival (PFS) (p=0.002) than the patients with SCC of the cervix. Multivariate analysis showed that AC/ASC histology was an independent negative prognostic factor for PFS. Among the patients who displayed AC/ASC histology, larger tumor size, older age, and incomplete response to radiotherapy were found to be independent prognostic factors. PFS was inversely associated with the number of poor prognostic factors the patients exhibited (the estimated 1-year PFS rates; 100.0%, 77.8%, 42.8%, 0.0% for 0, 1, 2, 3 factors, respectively).

          Conclusion

          Locally advanced cervical cancer patients with AC/ASC histology experience significantly worse survival outcomes than those with SCC. Further clinical studies are warranted to develop a concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) protocol that is specifically tailored to locally advanced cervical AC/ASC.

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          Most cited references29

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          Oncogenic mutations in cervical cancer: genomic differences between adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the cervix.

          Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among women worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe the most common oncogenic mutations in cervical cancers and to explore genomic differences between the 2 most common histologic subtypes: adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. A high-throughput genotyping platform, termed Oncomap, was used to interrogate 80 cervical tumors for 1250 known mutations in 139 cancer genes. Samples were analyzed using a mass spectrometry-based genotyping platform and were validated using orthogonal chemistry. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations were further validated by massive parallel sequencing. Human papilloma virus (HPV) genotyping also was performed. Validated mutations were detected in 48 of 80 tumors (60%) examined. The highest mutation rates were in the genes phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, catalytic subunit α (PIK3CA) (31.3%); Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) (8.8%); and EGFR (3.8%). PIK3CA mutation rates did not differ significantly between adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas (25% vs 37.5%, respectively; P = .33). In contrast, KRAS mutations were identified only in adenocarcinomas (17.5% vs 0%; P = .01), and a novel EGFR mutation was detected only in squamous cell carcinomas (0% vs 7.5%; P = .24). There were no associations between HPV-16 or HPV-18 and somatic mutations or overall survival. In adjusted analyses, PIK3CA mutations were associated with shorter survival (67.1 months vs 90.3 months; hazard ratio, 9.1; 95% confidence interval, 2.8-29.5 months; P < .001). Cervical cancers harbor high rates of potentially targetable oncogenic mutations. In addition, cervical squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma have distinct molecular profiles, suggesting that clinical outcomes may be improved with the use of more tailored treatment strategies, including PI3K and MEK inhibitors. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
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            Cervical adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma incidence trends among white women and black women in the United States for 1976-2000.

            Although cervical carcinoma incidence and mortality rates have declined in the U.S. greatly since the introduction of the Papanicolaou smear, this decline has not been uniform for all histologic subtypes. Therefore, the authors assessed the differential incidence rates of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) of the cervix by race and disease stage for the past 25 years. Data from nine population-based cancer registries participating in the U.S. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program were used to compute incidence rates for cervical carcinoma diagnosed during 1976-2000 by histologic subtype (SCC and AC), race (black and white), age, and disease stage (in situ, localized, regional, or distant). In black women and white women, the overall incidence of invasive SCC declined over time, and the majority of tumors that are detected currently are in situ and localized carcinomas in young women. The incidence of in situ SCC increased sharply in the early 1990s. AC in situ (AIS) incidence rates increased, especially among young women. In black women, invasive AC incidence rose linearly with age. Changes in screening, endocervical sampling, nomenclature, and improvements in treatment likely explain the increased in situ cervical SCC incidence in white women and black women. Increasing AIS incidence over the past 20 years in white women has not yet translated into a decrease in invasive AC incidence. Etiologic factors may explain the rising invasive cervical AC incidence in young white women; rising cervical AC incidence with age in black women may reflect either lack of effective screening or a differential disease etiology. Copyright 2004 American Cancer Society.
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              Incidence trends of adenocarcinoma of the cervix in 13 European countries.

              Rapid increases in cervical adenocarcinoma incidence have been observed in Western countries in recent decades. Postulated explanations include an increasing specificity of subtype-the capability to diagnose the disease, an inability of cytologic screening to reduce adenocarcinoma, and heterogeneity in cofactors related to persistent human papillomavirus infection. This study examines the possible contribution of these factors in relation with trends observed in Europe. Age-period-cohort models were fitted to cervical adenocarcinoma incidence trends in women ages /=3% in Finland, Slovakia, and Slovenia. The increases first affected generations born in the early 1930s through the mid-1940s, with risk invariably higher in women born in the mid-1960s relative to those born 20 years earlier. The magnitude of this risk ratio varied considerably from around 7 in Slovenia to almost unity in France. Declines in period-specific risk were observed in United Kingdom, Denmark, and Sweden, primarily among women ages >30. Whereas increasing specificity of subtype with time may be responsible for some of the increases in several countries, the changing distribution and prevalence of persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus types, alongside an inability to detect cervical adenocarcinoma within screening programs, would accord with the temporal profile observed in Europe. The homogeneity of trends in adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in birth cohort is consistent with the notion that they share a similar etiology irrespective of the differential capability of screen detection. Screening may have had at least some impact in reducing cervical adenocarcinoma incidence in several countries during the 1990s.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Gynecol Oncol
                J Gynecol Oncol
                JGO
                Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
                Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology; Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology
                2005-0380
                2005-0399
                March 2017
                08 December 2016
                : 28
                : 2
                : e19
                Affiliations
                Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.
                Author notes
                Correspondence to Seiji Mabuchi. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. smabuchi@ 123456gyne.med.osaka-u.ac.jp
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9514-1356
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1803-1166
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0397-4575
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4300-5517
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9572-4989
                Article
                10.3802/jgo.2017.28.e19
                5323286
                28028992
                209aeecf-4274-400a-9d30-39a2cab0d967
                Copyright © 2017. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 17 August 2016
                : 21 November 2016
                : 28 November 2016
                Categories
                Original Article
                Cervix

                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                uterine cervical neoplasms,radiotherapy,adenocarcinoma,carcinoma, adenosquamous

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