Hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) plays a signaling role in higher plants.
It mediates persulfidation, a post-translational modification.
It regulates physiological functions ranging from seed germination to fruit ripening.
The beneficial effects of exogenous H 2S are mainly caused by the stimulation of antioxidant systems.
The signaling properties of the gasotransmitter molecule hydrogen sulfide (H 2S), which is endogenously generated in plant cells, are mainly observed during persulfidation, a protein post-translational modification (PTM) that affects redox-sensitive cysteine residues. There is growing experimental evidence that H 2S in higher plants may function as a mechanism of response to environmental stress conditions. In addition, exogenous applications of H 2S to plants appear to provide additional protection against stresses, such as salinity, drought, extreme temperatures and heavy metals, mainly through the induction of antioxidant systems, in order to palliate oxidative cellular damage. H 2S also appears to be involved in regulating physiological functions, such as seed germination, stomatal movement and fruit ripening, as well as molecules that maintain post-harvest quality and rhizobium–legume symbiosis. These properties of H 2S open up new challenges in plant research to better understand its functions as well as new opportunities for biotechnological treatments in agriculture in a changing environment.