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      Vitamin D and responses to inhaled fluticasone in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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          Abstract

          Background

          Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) demonstrate variable responses to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). The factors contributing to this variability are not well understood. Data from patients with asthma have suggested that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels contribute to a lack of ICS response in asthma. The objective of this study was to determine whether serum levels of 25(OH)D were related to ICS responses in patients with COPD.

          Methods

          A total of 60 exsmokers with severe COPD (mean forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV 1] 1.07 L, 36% of predicted) spent 4 weeks free of any ICS, followed by 4 weeks of ICS use (fluticasone propionate 500 μg twice daily). Spirometry was performed prior to and after 4 weeks of ICS use. Blood 25(OH)D levels were measured prior to ICS use and examined for relationships to changes in FEV 1 following the 4 weeks of ICS use.

          Results

          The mean 25(OH)D level was 23.3 ± 9.3 ng/mL. There was a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (35%) and deficiency (40%). There was no relationship between baseline 25(OH)D and changes in FEV 1 following 4 weeks of ICS.

          Conclusion

          Baseline 25(OH)D does not contribute to the variation in short-term FEV 1 responses to ICS in patients with severe COPD.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Efficacy and safety of budesonide/formoterol in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

          The efficacy and safety of budesonide/formoterol in a single inhaler compared with placebo, budesonide and formoterol were evaluated in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a 12-month, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in 812 adults (mean age 64 yrs, mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 36% predicted normal), patients received two inhalations twice daily of either budesonide/formoterol (Symbicort) 160/4.5 microg (delivered dose), budesonide 200 microg (metered dose), formoterol 4.5 microg or placebo. Severe exacerbations and FEV1 (primary variables), peak expiratory flow (PEF), COPD symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQL), mild exacerbations, use of reliever beta2-agonist and safety variables were recorded. Budesonide/formoterol reduced the mean number of severe exacerbations per patient per year by 24% versus placebo and 23% versus formoterol. FEV1 increased by 15% versus placebo and 9% versus budesonide. Morning PEF improved significantly on day 1 versus placebo and budesonide; after 1 week, morning PEF was improved versus placebo, budesonide and formoterol. Improvements in morning and evening PEF versus comparators were maintained over 12 months. Budesonide/formoterol decreased all symptom scores and use of reliever beta2-agonists significantly versus placebo and budesonide, and improved HRQL versus placebo. All treatments were well tolerated. These results suggest a role for budesonide/formoterol in the long-term management of moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
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            Tiotropium in combination with placebo, salmeterol, or fluticasone-salmeterol for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized trial.

            Treatment of moderate or severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with combinations of inhaled corticosteroids, long-acting beta-agonists, and long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilators is common but unstudied. To determine whether combining tiotropium with salmeterol or fluticasone-salmeterol improves clinical outcomes in adults with moderate to severe COPD compared with tiotropium alone. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted from October 2003 to January 2006. 27 academic and community medical centers in Canada. 449 patients with moderate or severe COPD. 1 year of treatment with tiotropium plus placebo, tiotropium plus salmeterol, or tiotropium plus fluticasone-salmeterol. The primary end point was the proportion of patients who experienced an exacerbation of COPD that required treatment with systemic steroids or antibiotics. The proportion of patients in the tiotropium plus placebo group who experienced an exacerbation (62.8%) did not differ from that in the tiotropium plus salmeterol group (64.8%; difference, -2.0 percentage points [95% CI, -12.8 to 8.8 percentage points]) or in the tiotropium plus fluticasone-salmeterol group (60.0%; difference, 2.8 percentage points [CI, -8.2 to 13.8 percentage points]). In sensitivity analyses, the point estimates and 95% confidence bounds shifted in the direction favoring tiotropium plus salmeterol and tiotropium plus fluticasone-salmeterol. Tiotropium plus fluticasone-salmeterol improved lung function (P = 0.049) and disease-specific quality of life (P = 0.01) and reduced the number of hospitalizations for COPD exacerbation (incidence rate ratio, 0.53 [CI, 0.33 to 0.86]) and all-cause hospitalizations (incidence rate ratio, 0.67 [CI, 0.45 to 0.99]) compared with tiotropium plus placebo. In contrast, tiotropium plus salmeterol did not statistically improve lung function or hospitalization rates compared with tiotropium plus placebo. More than 40% of patients who received tiotropium plus placebo and tiotropium plus salmeterol discontinued therapy prematurely, and many crossed over to treatment with open-label inhaled steroids or long-acting beta-agonists. Addition of fluticasone-salmeterol to tiotropium therapy did not statistically influence rates of COPD exacerbation but did improve lung function, quality of life, and hospitalization rates in patients with moderate to severe COPD. International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial registration number: ISRCTN29870041.
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              Reversing the defective induction of IL-10-secreting regulatory T cells in glucocorticoid-resistant asthma patients.

              We previously reported that human CD4+ Tregs secrete high levels of IL-10 when stimulated in the presence of dexamethasone and calcitriol (vitamin D3). We now show that following stimulation by allergen, IL-10-secreting Tregs inhibit cytokine secretion by allergen-specific Th2 cells in an IL-10-dependent manner. A proportion of patients with severe asthma fail to demonstrate clinical improvement upon glucocorticoid therapy, and their asthma is characterized as glucocorticoid resistant (SR, abbreviation derived from "steroid resistant"). Dexamethasone does not enhance secretion of IL-10 by their CD4+ T cells. Addition of vitamin D3 with dexamethasone to cultures of SR CD4+ T cells enhanced IL-10 synthesis to levels observed in cells from glucocorticoid-sensitive patients cultured with dexamethasone alone. Furthermore, pretreatment with IL-10 fully restored IL-10 synthesis in these cells in response to dexamethasone. Vitamin D3 significantly overcame the inhibition of glucocorticoid-receptor expression by dexamethasone while IL-10 upregulated glucocorticoid-receptor expression by CD4+ T cells, suggesting potential mechanisms whereby these treatments may overcome poor glucocorticoid responsiveness. We show here that administration of vitamin D3 to healthy individuals and SR asthmatic patients enhanced subsequent responsiveness to dexamethasone for induction of IL-10. This strongly suggests that vitamin D3 could potentially increase the therapeutic response to glucocorticoids in SR patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2011
                2011
                07 January 2011
                : 6
                : 29-34
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Pulmonary Section, Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA
                [2 ] Center for Chronic Disease Outcomes Research and Center for Epidemiologic and Clinical Research, Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA
                [3 ] Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
                [4 ] Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ken M Kunisaki, Minneapolis VA Medical Center, Pulmonary Section (111N), One Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN, 55417, USA, Tel + 1 612 467 4400, Fax + 1 612 727 5634, Email kunis001@ 123456umn.edu
                Article
                copd-6-029
                10.2147/COPD.S15358
                3034285
                21311691
                © 2011 Kunisaki and Rector, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Short Report

                Respiratory medicine

                copd, spirometry, anti-inflammatory agents, androstadienes

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