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      Call for Papers: Beyond Biology: The Crucial Role of Sex and Gender in Oncology

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      Increase in Chondroitin Sulfate and Decline in Arylsulfatase B May Contribute to Pathophysiology of COVID-19 Respiratory Failure


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          Introduction: The potential role of accumulation of chondroitin sulfates (CSs) in the pathobiology of COVID-19 has not been examined. Accumulation may occur by increased synthesis or by decline in activity of the enzyme arylsulfatase B (ARSB; N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase) which requires oxygen for activity. Methods: Immunostaining of lung tissue from 28 patients who died due to COVID-19 infection was performed for CS, ARSB, and carbohydrate sulfotransferase (CHST)15. Measurements of mRNA expression of CHST15 and CHST11, sulfotransferase activity, and total sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were determined in human vascular smooth muscle cells following angiotensin (Ang) II treatment. Results: CS immunostaining showed increase in intensity and distribution, and immunostaining of ARSB was diminished in COVID-19 compared to normal lung tissue. CHST15 immunostaining was prominent in vascular smooth muscle cells associated with diffuse alveolar damage due to COVID-19 or other causes. Expression of CHST15 and CHST11 which are required for synthesis of CSE and chondroitin 4-sulfate, total sulfated GAGs, and sulfotransferase activity was significantly increased following AngII exposure in vascular smooth muscle cells. Expression of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a mediator of cytokine storm in COVID-19, was inversely associated with ARSB expression. Discussion/Conclusion: Decline in ARSB and resulting increases in CS may contribute to the pathobiology of COVID-19, as IL-6 does. Increased expression of CHSTs following activation of Ang-converting enzyme 2 may lead to buildup of CSs.

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          A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin

          Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) 18 years ago, a large number of SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) have been discovered in their natural reservoir host, bats 1–4 . Previous studies have shown that some bat SARSr-CoVs have the potential to infect humans 5–7 . Here we report the identification and characterization of a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which caused an epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans in Wuhan, China. The epidemic, which started on 12 December 2019, had caused 2,794 laboratory-confirmed infections including 80 deaths by 26 January 2020. Full-length genome sequences were obtained from five patients at an early stage of the outbreak. The sequences are almost identical and share 79.6% sequence identity to SARS-CoV. Furthermore, we show that 2019-nCoV is 96% identical at the whole-genome level to a bat coronavirus. Pairwise protein sequence analysis of seven conserved non-structural proteins domains show that this virus belongs to the species of SARSr-CoV. In addition, 2019-nCoV virus isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of a critically ill patient could be neutralized by sera from several patients. Notably, we confirmed that 2019-nCoV uses the same cell entry receptor—angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2)—as SARS-CoV.
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            SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and Is Blocked by a Clinically Proven Protease Inhibitor

            Summary The recent emergence of the novel, pathogenic SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China and its rapid national and international spread pose a global health emergency. Cell entry of coronaviruses depends on binding of the viral spike (S) proteins to cellular receptors and on S protein priming by host cell proteases. Unravelling which cellular factors are used by SARS-CoV-2 for entry might provide insights into viral transmission and reveal therapeutic targets. Here, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 uses the SARS-CoV receptor ACE2 for entry and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming. A TMPRSS2 inhibitor approved for clinical use blocked entry and might constitute a treatment option. Finally, we show that the sera from convalescent SARS patients cross-neutralized SARS-2-S-driven entry. Our results reveal important commonalities between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection and identify a potential target for antiviral intervention.
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              Pulmonary Vascular Endothelialitis, Thrombosis, and Angiogenesis in Covid-19

              Progressive respiratory failure is the primary cause of death in the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic. Despite widespread interest in the pathophysiology of the disease, relatively little is known about the associated morphologic and molecular changes in the peripheral lung of patients who die from Covid-19.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                March 2022
                17 November 2021
                : 89
                : 2
                : 81-91
                [_a] aPathology, University Hospital Basel, Institute of Medical Genetics and Pathology, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
                [_b] bDepartment of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
                [_c] cJesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA
                Author information
                519542 Pathobiology 2022;89:81–91
                © 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 24 June 2021
                : 06 September 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 7, Pages: 11
                Research Article

                Oncology & Radiotherapy,Pathology,Surgery,Obstetrics & Gynecology,Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine,Hematology
                COVID-19,Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2,Chondroitin sulfate,Sulfotransferase,Arylsulfatase B


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