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      The Effect of Pesticides on the Microbiome of Animals

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      Agriculture
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          In recent decades an increase in the use of pesticides to protect plants from pests, diseases and weeds has been observed. There are many studies on the effects of various pesticides on non-target organisms. This review aims to analyze and summarize published scientific data on the effects of pesticides on the animal microbiome. Pesticides can affect various parameters of the animal microbiome, such as the taxonomic composition of bacteria, bacterial biodiversity, and bacterial ratios and modify the microbiome of various organisms from insects to mammals. Pesticide induced changes in the microbiome reducing the animal’s immunity. The negative effects of pesticides could pose a global problem for pollinators. Another possible negative effect of pesticides is the impact of pesticides on the intestinal microbiota of bumblebees and bees that increase the body’s sensitivity to pathogenic microflora, which leads to the death of insects. In addition, pesticides can affect vitality, mating success and characteristics of offspring. The review considers methods for correcting of bee microbiome.

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          Most cited references115

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          Global pollinator declines: trends, impacts and drivers.

          Pollinators are a key component of global biodiversity, providing vital ecosystem services to crops and wild plants. There is clear evidence of recent declines in both wild and domesticated pollinators, and parallel declines in the plants that rely upon them. Here we describe the nature and extent of reported declines, and review the potential drivers of pollinator loss, including habitat loss and fragmentation, agrochemicals, pathogens, alien species, climate change and the interactions between them. Pollinator declines can result in loss of pollination services which have important negative ecological and economic impacts that could significantly affect the maintenance of wild plant diversity, wider ecosystem stability, crop production, food security and human welfare. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Bee declines driven by combined stress from parasites, pesticides, and lack of flowers.

            Bees are subject to numerous pressures in the modern world. The abundance and diversity of flowers has declined; bees are chronically exposed to cocktails of agrochemicals, and they are simultaneously exposed to novel parasites accidentally spread by humans. Climate change is likely to exacerbate these problems in the future. Stressors do not act in isolation; for example, pesticide exposure can impair both detoxification mechanisms and immune responses, rendering bees more susceptible to parasites. It seems certain that chronic exposure to multiple interacting stressors is driving honey bee colony losses and declines of wild pollinators, but such interactions are not addressed by current regulatory procedures, and studying these interactions experimentally poses a major challenge. In the meantime, taking steps to reduce stress on bees would seem prudent; incorporating flower-rich habitat into farmland, reducing pesticide use through adopting more sustainable farming methods, and enforcing effective quarantine measures on bee movements are all practical measures that should be adopted. Effective monitoring of wild pollinator populations is urgently needed to inform management strategies into the future.
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              Decline and conservation of bumble bees.

              Declines in bumble bee species in the past 60 years are well documented in Europe, where they are driven primarily by habitat loss and declines in floral abundance and diversity resulting from agricultural intensification. Impacts of habitat degradation and fragmentation are likely to be compounded by the social nature of bumble bees and their largely monogamous breeding system, which renders their effective population size low. Hence, populations are susceptible to stochastic extinction events and inbreeding. In North America, catastrophic declines of some bumble bee species since the 1990s are probably attributable to the accidental introduction of a nonnative parasite from Europe, a result of global trade in domesticated bumble bee colonies used for pollination of greenhouse crops. Given the importance of bumble bees as pollinators of crops and wildflowers, steps must be taken to prevent further declines. Suggested measures include tight regulation of commercial bumble bee use and targeted use of environmentally comparable schemes to enhance floristic diversity in agricultural landscapes.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                ABSGFK
                Agriculture
                Agriculture
                MDPI AG
                2077-0472
                March 2020
                March 14 2020
                : 10
                : 3
                : 79
                Article
                10.3390/agriculture10030079
                20b1fc23-112e-42cc-bea5-430f841af642
                © 2020

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                Self URI (article page): https://www.mdpi.com/2077-0472/10/3/79

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