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      Carbon fluxes and environmental interactions during legume development, with a specific focus on Pisum sativum

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          Abstract

          Grain legumes are major food crops cultivated worldwide for their seeds with high nutritional content. To answer the growing concern about food safety and protein autonomy, legume cultivation must increase in the coming years. In parallel, current agricultural practices are facing environmental challenges, including global temperature increase and more frequent and severe episodes of drought stress. Crop yield directly relies on carbon allocation and is particularly affected by these global changes. We review the current knowledge on source‐sink relationships and carbon resource allocation at all developmental stages, from germination to vegetative growth and seed production in grain legumes, focusing on pea ( Pisum sativum). We also discuss how these source‐sink relationships and carbon fluxes are influenced by biotic and abiotic factors. Major agronomic traits, including seed yield and quality, are particularly impacted by drought, temperatures, salinity, waterlogging, or pathogens and can be improved through the promotion of beneficial soil microorganisms or through optimized plant carbon resource allocation. Altogether, our review highlights the need for a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating carbon fluxes from source leaves to sink organs, roots, and seeds. These advancements will further improve our understanding of yield stability and stress tolerance and contribute to the selection of climate‐resilient crops.

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          Most cited references187

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          Crop Production under Drought and Heat Stress: Plant Responses and Management Options

          Abiotic stresses are one of the major constraints to crop production and food security worldwide. The situation has aggravated due to the drastic and rapid changes in global climate. Heat and drought are undoubtedly the two most important stresses having huge impact on growth and productivity of the crops. It is very important to understand the physiological, biochemical, and ecological interventions related to these stresses for better management. A wide range of plant responses to these stresses could be generalized into morphological, physiological, and biochemical responses. Interestingly, this review provides a detailed account of plant responses to heat and drought stresses with special focus on highlighting the commonalities and differences. Crop growth and yields are negatively affected by sub-optimal water supply and abnormal temperatures due to physical damages, physiological disruptions, and biochemical changes. Both these stresses have multi-lateral impacts and therefore, complex in mechanistic action. A better understanding of plant responses to these stresses has pragmatic implication for remedies and management. A comprehensive account of conventional as well as modern approaches to deal with heat and drought stresses have also been presented here. A side-by-side critical discussion on salient responses and management strategies for these two important abiotic stresses provides a unique insight into the phenomena. A holistic approach taking into account the different management options to deal with heat and drought stress simultaneously could be a win-win approach in future.
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            Sugar transporters for intercellular exchange and nutrition of pathogens.

            Sugar efflux transporters are essential for the maintenance of animal blood glucose levels, plant nectar production, and plant seed and pollen development. Despite broad biological importance, the identity of sugar efflux transporters has remained elusive. Using optical glucose sensors, we identified a new class of sugar transporters, named SWEETs, and show that at least six out of seventeen Arabidopsis, two out of over twenty rice and two out of seven homologues in Caenorhabditis elegans, and the single copy human protein, mediate glucose transport. Arabidopsis SWEET8 is essential for pollen viability, and the rice homologues SWEET11 and SWEET14 are specifically exploited by bacterial pathogens for virulence by means of direct binding of a bacterial effector to the SWEET promoter. Bacterial symbionts and fungal and bacterial pathogens induce the expression of different SWEET genes, indicating that the sugar efflux function of SWEET transporters is probably targeted by pathogens and symbionts for nutritional gain. The metazoan homologues may be involved in sugar efflux from intestinal, liver, epididymis and mammary cells.
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              Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and root system functioning

              The rhizosphere supports the development and activity of a huge and diversified microbial community, including microorganisms capable to promote plant growth. Among the latter, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) colonize roots of monocots and dicots, and enhance plant growth by direct and indirect mechanisms. Modification of root system architecture by PGPR implicates the production of phytohormones and other signals that lead, mostly, to enhanced lateral root branching and development of root hairs. PGPR also modify root functioning, improve plant nutrition and influence the physiology of the whole plant. Recent results provided first clues as to how PGPR signals could trigger these plant responses. Whether local and/or systemic, the plant molecular pathways involved remain often unknown. From an ecological point of view, it emerged that PGPR form coherent functional groups, whose rhizosphere ecology is influenced by a myriad of abiotic and biotic factors in natural and agricultural soils, and these factors can in turn modulate PGPR effects on roots. In this paper, we address novel knowledge and gaps on PGPR modes of action and signals, and highlight recent progress on the links between plant morphological and physiological effects induced by PGPR. We also show the importance of taking into account the size, diversity, and gene expression patterns of PGPR assemblages in the rhizosphere to better understand their impact on plant growth and functioning. Integrating mechanistic and ecological knowledge on PGPR populations in soil will be a prerequisite to develop novel management strategies for sustainable agriculture.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                nathalie.pourtau@univ-poitiers.fr
                Journal
                Physiol Plant
                Physiol Plant
                10.1111/(ISSN)1399-3054
                PPL
                Physiologia Plantarum
                Blackwell Publishing Ltd (Oxford, UK )
                0031-9317
                1399-3054
                24 June 2022
                May-Jun 2022
                : 174
                : 3 ( doiID: 10.1111/ppl.v174.3 )
                : e13729
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Université de Poitiers, UMR CNRS 7267, EBI "Ecologie et Biologie des Interactions" Poitiers France
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence

                Nathalie Pourtau, Université de Poitiers, UMR CNRS 7267, EBI "Ecologie et Biologie des Interactions," Poitiers, France.

                Email: nathalie.pourtau@ 123456univ-poitiers.fr

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3318-8778
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6625-268X
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3966-3218
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1200-4968
                Article
                PPL13729
                10.1111/ppl.13729
                9328368
                35662039
                20b46fe3-56aa-4b70-9fd1-ce107e4b4f43
                © 2022 The Authors. Physiologia Plantarum published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

                History
                : 25 May 2022
                : 17 December 2021
                : 01 June 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, Pages: 20, Words: 20154
                Funding
                Funded by: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique , doi 10.13039/501100004794;
                Funded by: Grand Poitiers
                Funded by: Université de Poitiers
                Categories
                Uptake, Transport and Assimilation
                Special Issue Article
                Special Issue Articles
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                May/June 2022
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:6.1.7 mode:remove_FC converted:27.07.2022

                Plant science & Botany
                Plant science & Botany

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