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      Mechanisms of biofilm resistance to antimicrobial agents.

      Trends in Microbiology

      Anti-Bacterial Agents, pharmacology, Bacterial Proteins, metabolism, Biofilms, drug effects, growth & development, Drug Resistance, Microbial, Drug Resistance, Multiple, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Phenotype, Polysaccharides, Bacterial, chemistry, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Sigma Factor, Staphylococcus epidermidis

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          Abstract

          Biofilms are communities of microorganisms attached to a surface. It has become clear that biofilm-grown cells express properties distinct from planktonic cells, one of which is an increased resistance to antimicrobial agents. Recent work has indicated that slow growth and/or induction of an rpoS-mediated stress response could contribute to biocide resistance. The physical and/or chemical structure of exopolysaccharides or other aspects of biofilm architecture could also confer resistance by exclusion of biocides from the bacterial community. Finally, biofilm-grown bacteria might develop a biofilm-specific biocide-resistant phenotype. Owing to the heterogeneous nature of the biofilm, it is likely that there are multiple resistance mechanisms at work within a single community. Recent research has begun to shed light on how and why surface-attached microbial communities develop resistance to antimicrobial agents.

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          11166241

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