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      Stem cells in articular cartilage regeneration

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          Abstract

          Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising option to treat articular defects and early osteoarthritis (OA) stages. However, both their potential and limitations for a clinical use remain controversial. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to examine MSCs treatment strategies in clinical settings, in order to summarize the current evidence of their efficacy for the treatment of cartilage lesions and OA.

          Among the 60 selected studies, 7 were randomized, 13 comparative, 31 case series, and 9 case reports; 26 studies reported the results after injective administration, whereas 33 used surgical implantation. One study compared the two different modalities. With regard to the cell source, 20 studies concerned BMSCs, 17 ADSCs, 16 BMC, 5 PBSCs, 1 SDSCs, and 1 compared BMC versus PBSCs. Overall, despite the increasing literature on this topic, the evidence is still limited, in particular for high-level studies. On the other hand, the available studies allow to draw some indications. First, no major adverse events related to the treatment or to the cell harvest have been reported. Second, a clinical benefit of using MSCs therapies has been reported in most of the studies, regardless of cell source, indication, or administration method. This effectiveness has been reflected by clinical improvements and also positive MRI and macroscopic findings, whereas histologic features gave more controversial results among different studies. Third, young age, lower BMI, smaller lesion size for focal lesions, and earlier stages of OA joints have been shown to correlate with better outcomes, even though the available data strength does not allow to define clear cutoff values. Finally, definite trends can be observed with regard to the delivery method: currently cultured cells are mostly being administered by i.a. injection, while one-step surgical implantation is preferred for cell concentrates. In conclusion, while promising results have been shown, the potential of these treatments should be confirmed by reliable clinical data through double-blind, controlled, prospective and multicenter studies with longer follow-up, and specific studies should be designed to identify the best cell sources, manipulation, and delivery techniques, as well as pathology and disease phase indications.

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          Most cited references 72

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          Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions in the United States. Part I.

          To provide a single source for the best available estimates of the US prevalence of and number of individuals affected by arthritis overall, rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile arthritis, the spondylarthritides, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and Sjögren's syndrome. A companion article (part II) addresses additional conditions. The National Arthritis Data Workgroup reviewed published analyses from available national surveys, such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). For analysis of overall arthritis, we used the NHIS. Because data based on national population samples are unavailable for most specific rheumatic conditions, we derived estimates from published studies of smaller, defined populations. For specific conditions, the best available prevalence estimates were applied to the corresponding 2005 US population estimates from the Census Bureau, to estimate the number affected with each condition. More than 21% of US adults (46.4 million persons) were found to have self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis. We estimated that rheumatoid arthritis affects 1.3 million adults (down from the estimate of 2.1 million for 1995), juvenile arthritis affects 294,000 children, spondylarthritides affect from 0.6 million to 2.4 million adults, systemic lupus erythematosus affects from 161,000 to 322,000 adults, systemic sclerosis affects 49,000 adults, and primary Sjögren's syndrome affects from 0.4 million to 3.1 million adults. Arthritis and other rheumatic conditions continue to be a large and growing public health problem. Estimates for many specific rheumatic conditions rely on a few, small studies of uncertain generalizability to the US population. This report provides the best available prevalence estimates for the US, but for most specific conditions, more studies generalizable to the US or addressing understudied populations are needed.
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            Epidemiology and burden of osteoarthritis.

            Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease involving the cartilage and many of its surrounding tissues. Disease progression is usually slow but can ultimately lead to joint failure with pain and disability. OA of the hips and knees tends to cause the greatest burden to the population as pain and stiffness in these large weight-bearing joints often leads to significant disability requiring surgical intervention. The article reviews the existing data on epidemiology of osteoarthritis and the burden of the disease. Symptoms and radiographic changes are poorly correlated in OA. Established risk factors include obesity, local trauma and occupation. The burden of OA is physical, psychological and socioeconomic. Available data does not allow definite conclusion regarding the roles of nutrition, smoking and sarcopenia as risk factors for developing OA. Variable methods of diagnosing osteoarthritis have significantly influenced the comparability of the available literature. Further research is required to fully understand how OA affects an individual physically and psychologically, and to determine their healthcare need.
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              Human autologous culture expanded bone marrow mesenchymal cell transplantation for repair of cartilage defects in osteoarthritic knees.

              There is no widely accepted method to repair articular cartilage defects. Bone marrow mesenchymal cells have the potential to differentiate into bone, cartilage, fat and muscle. Bone marrow mesenchymal cell transplantation is easy to use clinically because cells can be easily obtained and can be multiplied without losing their capacity of differentiation. The objective of this study was to apply these cell transplantations to repair human articular cartilage defects in osteoarthritic knee joints. Twenty-four knees of 24 patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) who underwent a high tibial osteotomy comprised the study group. Adherent cells in bone marrow aspirates were culture expanded, embedded in collagen gel, transplanted into the articular cartilage defect in the medial femoral condyle and covered with autologous periosteum at the time of 12 high tibial osteotomies. The other 12 subjects served as cell-free controls. In the cell-transplanted group, as early as 6.3 weeks after transplantation the defects were covered with white to pink soft tissue, in which metachromasia was partially observed. Forty-two weeks after transplantation, the defects were covered with white soft tissue, in which metachromasia was observed in almost all areas of the sampled tissue and hyaline cartilage-like tissue was partially observed. Although the clinical improvement was not significantly different, the arthroscopic and histological grading score was better in the cell-transplanted group than in the cell-free control group. This procedure highlights the availability of autologous culture expanded bone marrow mesenchymal cell transplantation for the repair of articular cartilage defects in humans. Copyright 2002 OsteoArthritis Research Society International.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                g.filardo@biomec.ior.it
                francesco.perdisa@ior.it
                a.roffi@biomec.ior.it
                m.marcacci@biomec.ior.it
                e.kon@biomec.ior.it
                Journal
                J Orthop Surg Res
                J Orthop Surg Res
                Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
                BioMed Central (London )
                1749-799X
                12 April 2016
                12 April 2016
                2016
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [ ]II Orthopaedic and Traumatologic Clinic, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna, Italy
                [ ]Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna, Italy
                Article
                378
                10.1186/s13018-016-0378-x
                4830073
                27072345
                © Filardo et al. 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: Project funded by Italian Ministry of Health
                Award ID: RF-2011-02352638
                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Surgery

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