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      Fingerprint analysis of processed Rhizoma Chuanxiong by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection


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          Rhizoma Chuanxiong (RC) is the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., and various types of processed Rhizoma Chuanxiong (PRC) are widely used in China. However, quality assurance and quality control of these processed medicines remain challenging. This study aims to investigate the chemical compositions of various PRC preparations by a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode array detection (DAD) method.


          A HPLC-DAD method with validation was developed for PRC samples. Seven batches of plant samples from two processing methods, stir-frying and steaming, were analyzed by the HPLC-DAD method. Common peaks in PRC chromatograms were chosen to calculate their relative retention time (RRT) and relative peak area (RPA), and similarity analyses of the chromatographic fingerprints were conducted by Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of Traditional Chinese Medicine software (Version 2004 A).


          In the 24-h stability test, the relative standard deviation for the RRT and RPA was less than 0.07% and 2.57%, respectively. The precision was less than 0.08% for the RRT and 2.48% for the RPA. The repeatability for the RRT and RPA was less than 0.03% and 2.64%, respectively. The similarities between the seven PRC batches were range from 0.956 to 0.990. After stir-frying or steaming, the amount of ferulic acid in PRC was much higher than that in the raw material.


          The fingerprint analysis of PRC by different processing methods was feasible by HPLC-DAD.

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          A unique issue in the standardization of Chinese materia medica: processing.

          Processing of Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) is a pharmaceutical technique to fulfill the different requirements of therapy, dispensing and making preparations according to traditional Chinese medicine theory. The aims of processing are to enhance the efficacy and/or reduce the toxicity of crude drugs. Those processed products are named as decoction pieces, which are used in clinics. Therefore, there is a close relationship between processing, safety, and efficacy of Chinese medicines. Some toxicity or side effects are caused by improper processing methods and some are due to improper combination of herbal mixtures. Standardization of processing methods for Chinese herbs is as important as authentication to maintain their quality and ensure their safe use. The objective of this paper is to review the literature covering the current situation and problems of CMM processing as well as recent progress in research in this area. A summary of the most urgent work needed is proposed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
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            Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort: a review of chemistry and pharmacology.

            Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort (LC; Umbelliferae) is an effective medical plant, which has been extensively applied for many years to treat various diseases with other Chinese herbal medicines. Although a considerable amount of scientific research was reported on LC in the last decade, it is currently scattered across various publications. The present review comprises the chemical and pharmacological research on LC in the last decade. The objective of this review is to bring together most of the scientific research available on LC and evaluate its effects and mechanisms. The information for 82 cases included in this review was compiled using major databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Pubmed, and Scholar. The compounds contained in LC can be divided into five kinds, essential oil (EO), alkaloids, phenolic acids, phthalide lactones, and other constituents. A great deal of pharmacological research has been done, which mainly focuses on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular effects, antioxidation, neuroprotection, antifibrosis, antinociception, antiinflammation, and antineoplastic activity. A large number of pharmacological and chemical studies during the last 10 years have demonstrated the vast medicinal potential of LC. It is still very clear that LC is a plant with widespread use now and also with extraordinary potential for the future. The documents strongly support the view that LC has beneficial therapeutic properties and indicates its potential as an effective adaptogenic herbal remedy.
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              Advances in the Chemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Chuanxiong

              Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuan-Xiong, CX), the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae), is one of the most popular plant medicines in the World. Modern research indicates that organic acids, phthalides, alkaloids, polysaccharides, ceramides and cerebrosides are main components responsible for the bioactivities and properties of CX. Because of its complex constituents, multidisciplinary techniques are needed to validate the analytical methods that support CX’s use worldwide. In the past two decades, rapid development of technology has advanced many aspects of CX research. The aim of this review is to illustrate the recent advances in the chemical analysis and biological activities of CX, and to highlight new applications and challenges. Emphasis is placed on recent trends and emerging techniques.

                Author and article information

                Chin Med
                Chin Med
                Chinese Medicine
                BioMed Central (London )
                10 February 2015
                10 February 2015
                : 10
                : 2
                [ ]School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China
                [ ]School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510182 People’s Republic of China
                [ ]School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangdong Food and Drug Vocational College, Guangzhou, 510520 People’s Republic of China
                [ ]Leshan Pharmaceutical Research Center, Leshan Vocational & Technical College, Leshan, 614000 People’s Republic of China
                © Fang et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                : 4 August 2014
                : 26 January 2015
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                © The Author(s) 2015

                Complementary & Alternative medicine
                rhizoma chuanxiong,hplc-dad,ligusticum chuanxiong,fingerprint,processing


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