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      Faunistic analysis of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) in Guarana (Paullinia cupana) crop, with new records of genera for the Brazilian Amazon Translated title: Análise faunística de Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) na cultura de guaraná (Paullinia cupana), com novos registros de gênero para a Amazônia brasileira

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          ABSTRACT: Ichneumonidae are solitary parasitoids that mainly attack larvae and pupae of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera, which constitute important agricultural pests. The objective of the present paper was to characterize the assemblage of Ichneumonidae associated to the conventional and organic cultivation of Guarana (Paullinia cupana) crop in Manaus City (Amazonas State, Brazil) with faunistic analysis. The samples were collected at Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA), using Malaise and Moericke traps, between September 2012 and February 2013. We collected 296 specimens of Ichneumonidae, represented by 14 subfamilies, 41 genera and 63 morphospecies. The faunistic analysis revealed the predominance of rare and less frequent genera (54.2% in conventional and 47.1% in organic crop management). Venturia Schrottky was highlighted as superabundant, super frequent and constant (46.4% of the specimens) in conventional cultivation. In organic cultivation, Eiphosoma Cresson (15.6% of the specimens), Venturia (15.1%), Polycyrtidea Viereck (7%), Stethantyx Townes (6%), Enicospilus Stephens and Diapetimorpha Viereck (both 5.5%), Polycyrtus Spinola and Podogaster Brullé (both 5%) were more abundant, more frequent and constant. The observed differences reflect the type of crop management. Considering that organic crop management do not use agrochemicals, there is a greater diversification of the landscape. On the other hand, a reduction in richness and abundance has been observed in conventional crop management, due to its greater alteration and uniformity of the landscape. This study evidences a high number of rare, less frequent and accidental genera, and reveals the predominant groups in each crop cultivation system.

          Translated abstract

          RESUMO: Ichneumonidae são parasitoides solitários e atacam principalmente larvas e pupas de Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Hymenoptera, que constituem importantes pragas agrícolas. O objetivo do trabalho foi caracterizar a assembleia de Ichneumonidae associada ao cultivo de guaraná (Paullinia cupana) de manejo convencional e orgânico, em Manaus (Amazonas, Brasil) por meio de análise faunística. As coletas foram realizadas na EMBRAPA, com o uso de armadilhas Malaise e Moericke, entre setembro de 2012 e fevereiro de 2013. Foram coletados 296 exemplares de Ichneumonidae, em 14 subfamílias, 41 gêneros e 63 morfoespécies. A análise faunística revelou predominância de gêneros raros e pouco frequentes (54,2% no manejo convencional e 47,1% no orgânico). Venturia Schrottky destacou-se no manejo convencional como superabundante, superfrequente e constante (46,4% dos exemplares). No manejo orgânico, Eiphosoma Cresson (15,6% dos exemplares), Venturia (15,1%), Polycyrtidea Viereck (7%), Stethantyx Townes (6%), Enicospilus Stephens e Diapetimorpha Viereck (ambos 5,5%), Polycyrtus Spinola e Podogaster Brullé (ambos 5%) foram muito abundantes, muito frequentes e constantes. As diferenças observadas refletem o tipo de manejo da cultura. No manejo orgânico, por não utilizar agroquímicos, há uma maior diversificação da paisagem. Já no manejo convencional há uma redução da riqueza e abundância, por possuir maior perturbação e uniformidade da paisagem. Este estudo evidenciou o elevado número de gêneros raros, pouco frequentes e acidentais e expôs os grupos predominantes em cada sistema de manejo.

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          Most cited references 39

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          A light-weight Malaise trap.

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            Rare species in communities of tropical insect herbivores: pondering the mystery of singletons

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              Undersampling bias: the null hypothesis for singleton species in tropical arthropod surveys.

              1. Frequency of singletons - species represented by single individuals - is anomalously high in most large tropical arthropod surveys (average, 32%). 2. We sampled 5965 adult spiders of 352 species (29% singletons) from 1 ha of lowland tropical moist forest in Guyana. 3. Four common hypotheses (small body size, male-biased sex ratio, cryptic habits, clumped distributions) failed to explain singleton frequency. Singletons are larger than other species, not gender-biased, share no particular lifestyle, and are not clumped at 0.25-1 ha scales. 4. Monte Carlo simulation of the best-fit lognormal community shows that the observed data fit a random sample from a community of approximately 700 species and 1-2 million individuals, implying approximately 4% true singleton frequency. 5. Undersampling causes systematic negative bias of species richness, and should be the default null hypothesis for singleton frequencies. 6. Drastically greater sampling intensity in tropical arthropod inventory studies is required to yield realistic species richness estimates. 7. The lognormal distribution deserves greater consideration as a richness estimator when undersampling bias is severe.

                Author and article information

                Arquivos do Instituto Biológico
                Arq. Inst. Biol.
                Instituto Biológico (São Paulo, SP, Brazil )
                : 87
                Manaus Amazonas orgnameInstituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia Brazil
                S1808-16572020000100208 S1808-1657(20)08700000208

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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