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      Validade do instrumento WHO VAW STUDY para estimar violência de gênero contra a mulher Translated title: Validity of the WHO VAW study instrument for estimating gender-based violence against women Translated title: Validez de instrumento para estimar violencia de género contra la mujer

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          Abstract

          OBJETIVO: Validar o instrumento do estudo World Health Organization Violence Against Women (WHO VAW) sobre violência psicológica, física e sexual por parceiros íntimos contra mulheres. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado em vários países entre 2000 e 2003, inclusive Brasil. Selecionaram-se amostras aleatórias e representativas de mulheres de 15-49 anos com parceiros íntimos, residentes na cidade de São Paulo, SP, (n = 940) e na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco (n = 1.188). Realizou-se análise fatorial exploratória das perguntas sobre violências (quatro psicológicas, seis físicas e três sexuais), com rotação varimax e criação de três fatores. Calculou-se alfa de Cronbach para análise da consistência interna. Para a validação por grupos extremos, médias de escores (zero a 13 pontos) de violência foram testadas em relação aos desfechos: auto-avaliação de saúde, atividades diárias, presença de dor ou desconforto, ideação e tentativa de suicídio, grande consumo de álcool e presença de transtorno mental comum. RESULTADOS: Foram definidos três fatores com variância acumulada semelhante (0,6092 em São Paulo e 0,6350 na Zona da Mata). Para São Paulo, o primeiro fator foi determinado pela violência física, o segundo pela sexual e o terceiro pela psicológica. Para a Zona da Mata, o primeiro fator foi composto pela violência psicológica, o segundo pela física e o terceiro pela sexual. Coeficientes de alfa de Cronbach foram 0,88 em São Paulo e 0,89 na Zona da Mata. As médias dos escores de violência foram significativamente maiores para desfechos menos favoráveis, exceto tentativa de suicídio em São Paulo. CONCLUSÕES: O instrumento mostrou-se adequado para estimar a violência de gênero contra a mulher perpetrada por seu parceiro íntimo e pode ser utilizado em estudos sobre o tema. Ele tem alta consistência interna e capacidade de discriminar as formas de violência psicológica, física e sexual, perpetrada em contextos sociais diversos. O instrumento também caracteriza a mulher agredida e sua relação com o agressor, facilitando análises de gênero.

          Translated abstract

          OBJECTIVE: To validate the instrument of the World Health Organization Violence Against Women (WHO VAW) study on psychological, physical and sexual violence against women perpetrated by intimate partners. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in several countries between 2000 and 2003, including Brazil. Representative random samples of women aged 15-49 years with intimate partners were selected, living in the city of São Paulo (n = 940) and in the Zona da Mata, Pernambuco (n = 1,188), southeastern and northeastern regions, respectively. Exploratory factor analysis on questions relating to violence was performed (four psychological, six physical and three sexual questions), with varimax rotation and creation of three factors. Cronbach's alpha was calculated to analyze the internal consistency. To validate through extreme groups, mean scores (0 to 13 points) for violence were tested in relation to the following outcomes: self-rated health, daily activities, presence of discomfort or pain, suicidal ideation or attempts, heavy alcohol consumption and presence of common mental disorders. RESULTS: Three factors were defined, with similar accumulated variance (0.6092 in São Paulo and 0.6350 in the Zona da Mata). For São Paulo, the first factor was determined by physical violence, the second by sexual violence and the third by psychological violence. For the Zona da Mata, the first factor was formed by psychological violence, the second by physical violence and the third by sexual violence. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.88 in São Paulo and 0.89 in the Zona da Mata. The mean scores for violence were significantly higher for less favorable outcomes, with the exception of suicide attempts in São Paulo. CONCLUSIONS: The instrument was shown to be adequate for estimating gender-based violence against women perpetrated by intimate partners and can be used in studies on this subject. It has high internal consistency and a capacity to discriminate between different forms of violence (psychological, physical and sexual) perpetrated in different social contexts. The instrument also characterizes the female victim and her relationship with the aggressor, thereby facilitating gender analysis.

          Translated abstract

          OBJETIVO: Validar preguntas sobre violencia psicológica, física y sexual por parejas íntimas contra mujeres. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, coordinado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, realizado en varios países (2000-2003), inclusive Brasil. Se seleccionaron muestras aleatorias y representativas de mujeres de 15-49 años con parejas íntimas, residentes, en la ciudad de Sao Paulo (en Sureste de Brasil, n=940) y en la Zona de Mata de Pernambuco (en Noreste de Brasil, n=1188). Se realizó análisis factorial exploratorio de las preguntas sobre violencias (cuatro psicológicas, seis físicas y tres sexuales), con rotación varimax y elaboración de tres factores. Se calculó alfa de Cronbach para análisis de la consistencia interna. Para la validación por grupos extremos, promedios de escores (cero a 13 puntos) de violencia fueron evaluadas con relación a los resultados: auto-evaluación de salud, actividades diarias, presencia de dolor o incomodidad, concepción de idea e intento de suicidio, grande consumo de alcohol y presencia de trastorno mental común. RESULTADOS: Fueron definidos tres factores con varianza acumulada semejante (0,6092 en Sao Paulo y 0,6350 en la Zona de Mata). Para Sao Paulo, el primer factor fue determinado por la violencia física, el segundo por la sexual y el tercero por la psicológica. Para la Zona de Mata, el primer factor estuvo compuesto por la violencia psicológica, el segundo por la física y el tercero por la sexual. Coeficientes de alfa de Cronbach fueron 0,88 en Sao Paulo y 0,89 en la Zona de Mata. Los promedios de los escores de violencia fueron significativamente mayores para resultados menos favorables, excepto intento de suicidio en Sao Paulo. CONCLUSIONES: El instrumento se mostró adecuado para estimar la violencia de género contra la mujer perpetrada por su pareja íntima y puede ser utilizado en estudios sobre el tema. El mismo tiene alta consistencia interna y capacidad de discriminar las formas de violencia psicológica, física y sexual, perpetrada en contextos sociales diversos. El instrumento también caracteriza a la mujer agredida y su relación con el agresor, facilitando análisis de género.

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          Most cited references 54

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          Measuring Intrafamily Conflict and Violence: The Conflict Tactics (CT) Scales

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            Health consequences of intimate partner violence.

            Intimate partner violence, which describes physical or sexual assault, or both, of a spouse or sexual intimate, is a common health-care issue. In this article, I have reviewed research on the mental and physical health sequelae of such violence. Increased health problems such as injury, chronic pain, gastrointestinal, and gynaecological signs including sexually-transmitted diseases, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder are well documented by controlled research in abused women in various settings. Intimate partner violence has been noted in 3-13% of pregnancies in many studies from around the world, and is associated with detrimental outcomes to mothers and infants. I recommend increased assessment and interventions for intimate partner violence in health-care settings.
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              Intimate partner violence and women's physical and mental health in the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence: an observational study.

              This article summarises findings from ten countries from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women. Standardised population-based surveys were done between 2000 and 2003. Women aged 15-49 years were interviewed about their experiences of physically and sexually violent acts by a current or former intimate male partner, and about selected symptoms associated with physical and mental health. The women reporting physical violence by a partner were asked about injuries that resulted from this type of violence. 24,097 women completed interviews. Pooled analysis of all sites found significant associations between lifetime experiences of partner violence and self-reported poor health (odds ratio 1.6 [95% CI 1.5-1.8]), and with specific health problems in the previous 4 weeks: difficulty walking (1.6 [1.5-1.8]), difficulty with daily activities (1.6 [1.5-1.8]), pain (1.6 [1.5-1.7]), memory loss (1.8 [1.6-2.0]), dizziness (1.7 [1.6-1.8]), and vaginal discharge (1.8 [1.7-2.0]). For all settings combined, women who reported partner violence at least once in their life reported significantly more emotional distress, suicidal thoughts (2.9 [2.7-3.2]), and suicidal attempts (3.8 [3.3-4.5]), than non-abused women. These significant associations were maintained in almost all of the sites. Between 19% and 55% of women who had ever been physically abused by their partner were ever injured. In addition to being a breach of human rights, intimate partner violence is associated with serious public-health consequences that should be addressed in national and global health policies and programmes.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade de São Paulo Brazil
                [2 ] Universidade de São Paulo Brazil
                [3 ] Universidade de São Paulo Brazil
                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rsp
                Revista de Saúde Pública
                Rev. Saúde Pública
                Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo (São Paulo )
                1518-8787
                August 2010
                : 44
                : 4
                : 658-666
                S0034-89102010000400009
                10.1590/S0034-89102010000400009

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Brazil
                Categories
                Health Policy & Services

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