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      Enthesitis Related Arthritis in a Longitudinal Southeast Asian Registry: High Prevalence of HLA-B27, Different Sacroiliitis Risk Factors and Less Common Drug-Free Remission

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          Abstract

          Objective. To describe the clinical characteristics, predictors and treatment of children with Enthesitis Related Arthritis (ERA) in a Singapore longitudinal cohort over 11 years. Methods. ERA patients were recruited from our registry (2009–2019). Nonparametric descriptive statistics including median (interquartile range, IQR) were used to describe data. Kaplan–Meier survival and logistic/Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the probabilities and determine predictors of clinical variables, respectively. The significance level was set at <0.05. Results. One hundred and forty-six ERA patients (87% male, 82% Chinese) were included. Median onset age was 11.9 years (IQR 9.4–14.0) and median disease duration was 4.9 years (IQR 2.6–8.3). Family history of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-B27 associated diseases was positive in 7.5%. Acute uveitis occurred in 3.4%. Oligoarthritis was present in 89.7%. Hip, knee and ankle joints were among the most common joints involved. One-fourth had enthesitis at diagnosis (Achilles tendon entheses, 82.9%). Sacroiliitis occurred in 61%. Probabilities of sacroiliitis development were 0.364, 0.448 and 0.578 at 1, 2 and 5 years after onset, respectively. Negative HLA-B27, female, older age at onset and hip arthritis at diagnosis were associated with shorter time for sacroiliitis development ( p = 0.001–0.049). Methotrexate (MTX) remained the most common disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) used (77.4%). However, 77.9% required anti-TNF (aTNF) therapy secondary to MTX failure. Among MTX-treated sacroiliitis patients, 85.3% failed, requiring aTNF, as compared to 63.2%patients without axial disease. Longer duration to diagnosis ( p = 0.038) and MTX use ( p = 0.007) predicted aTNF therapy. None had joint deformity. Conclusions. This study underscores differences in ERA clinical characteristics, predictors and treatment responses. Our ERA population had many unique findings but good functional outcomes.

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          Most cited references 33

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          International League of Associations for Rheumatology classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: second revision, Edmonton, 2001.

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            Methotrexate in resistant juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Results of the U.S.A.-U.S.S.R. double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The Pediatric Rheumatology Collaborative Study Group and The Cooperative Children's Study Group.

            The antimetabolite methotrexate has been shown in placebo-controlled trials to be effective in adults with rheumatoid arthritis. Methotrexate may also be effective in children with resistant juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, but the supporting data are from uncontrolled trials. Centers in the United States and the Soviet Union participated in this randomized, controlled, double-blind trial designed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of orally administered methotrexate. Patients received one of the following treatments each week for six months: 10 mg of methotrexate per square meter of body-surface area (low dose), 5 mg of methotrexate per square meter (very low dose), or placebo. The use of prednisone (less than or equal to 10 mg per day) and two nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs was also allowed. The 127 children (mean age, 10.1 years) had a mean duration of disease of 5.1 years; 114 qualified for the analysis of efficacy. According to a composite index of several response variables, 63 percent of the children who received low-dose methotrexate improved, as compared with 32 percent of those in the very-low-dose group and 36 percent of those in the placebo group (P = 0.013). As compared with the placebo group, the low-dose group also had significantly larger mean reductions from base line in the number of joints with pain on motion (-11.0 vs. -7.1), the pain-severity score (-19 vs. -11.5), the number of joints with limited motion (-5.4 vs. -0.7), and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (-19.0 vs. -6 mm per hour). In the methotrexate groups only three children had the drug discontinued because of mild-to-moderate side effects; none had severe toxicity. Methotrexate given weekly in low doses is an effective treatment for children with resistant juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, and at least in the short term this regimen is safe.
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              Epidemiology of juvenile idiopathic arthritis in a multiethnic cohort: ethnicity as a risk factor.

              To study the influence of ethnicity on the risk of developing juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in a multiethnic community of patients with unrestricted access to health care. A questionnaire on ethnicity was distributed to all patients with JIA being followed up at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Of 1,082 patients, 859 (79.4%) responded to the questionnaire. To calculate the relative risk (RR) of developing JIA in this study cohort, the results were compared with data from the age-matched general population of the Toronto metropolitan area (TMA) as provided in the 2001 census from Statistics Canada. European descent was reported by 69.7% of the patients with JIA compared with a frequency of 54.7% in the TMA general population, whereas a statistically significantly lower than expected percentage of the patients with JIA reported having black, Asian, or Indian subcontinent origin. Children of European origin had a higher RR for developing any of the JIA subtypes except polyarticular rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive JIA, and were particularly more likely to develop the extended oligoarticular and psoriatic subtypes. A higher frequency of enthesitis-related JIA was observed among patients of Asian origin, while those of black origin or native North American origin were more likely to develop polyarticular RF-positive JIA. In this multiethnic cohort, European descent was associated with a significantly increased risk of developing JIA, and the distribution of JIA subtypes differed significantly across ethnic groups.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                J Clin Med
                J Clin Med
                jcm
                Journal of Clinical Medicine
                MDPI
                2077-0383
                03 February 2021
                February 2021
                : 10
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Rheumatology and Immunology Service, Department of Pediatric Subspecialties, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore 229899, Singapore; teh.kai.liang@ 123456singhealth.com.sg (K.L.T.); book.yun.xin@ 123456kkh.com.sg (Y.X.B.); lena.das@ 123456kkh.com.sg (L.D.)
                [2 ]Duke-NUS Medical School, Pediatric Academic Clinical Program, Singapore 169857, Singapore
                [3 ]Division of Nursing, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore 229899, Singapore; hoh.sook.fun@ 123456kkh.com.sg (S.F.H.); gao.xiaocong@ 123456kkh.com.sg (X.G.)
                Author notes
                Article
                jcm-10-00568
                10.3390/jcm10040568
                7913299
                33546269
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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