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      Hemodialysis for the Treatment of Pulmonary Hemorrhage From Dabigatran Overdose

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          Abstract

          Dabigatran is an oral direct thrombin inhibitor indicated for thromboembolism prophylaxis in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Since its approval in the United States in 2010, dabigatran-associated hemorrhages have garnered much attention because bleeding rates were higher than initially expected. Additionally, reversing anticoagulation remains challenging. Traditional modes of reversing warfarin-associated coagulopathies are ineffective in reversing anticoagulation from dabigatran. Although hemodialysis is proposed as a method to accelerate dabigatran elimination, evidence supporting its clinical utility remains unproved. We report the case of an 80-year-old man who presented with worsening hemoptysis in the setting of unintentional ingestion of excess dabigatran. Despite transfusion of 2 units of fresh frozen plasma, he continued to bleed, although his international normalized ratio improved from 8.8 to 7.2. He underwent hemodialysis, and serum dabigatran concentration decreased from 1,100 to 18 ng/mL over 4 hours, with an initial extraction ratio of 0.97 and blood clearance of 291 mL/min. Although his serum dabigatran concentration rebounded to 100 ng/mL 20 minutes after the cessation of dialysis, his bleeding stopped and he improved clinically. Hemorrhage in the setting of dabigatran anticoagulation remains a therapeutic predicament. Hemodialysis may play an adjunct role in accelerating the elimination of dabigatran in bleeding patients.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Reversal of rivaroxaban and dabigatran by prothrombin complex concentrate: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in healthy subjects.

          Rivaroxaban and dabigatran are new oral anticoagulants that specifically inhibit factor Xa and thrombin, respectively. Clinical studies on the prevention and treatment of venous and arterial thromboembolism show promising results. A major disadvantage of these anticoagulants is the absence of an antidote in case of serious bleeding or when an emergency intervention needs immediate correction of coagulation. This study evaluated the potential of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) to reverse the anticoagulant effect of these drugs. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 12 healthy male volunteers received rivaroxaban 20 mg twice daily (n=6) or dabigatran 150 mg twice daily (n=6) for 2½ days, followed by either a single bolus of 50 IU/kg PCC (Cofact) or a similar volume of saline. After a washout period, this procedure was repeated with the other anticoagulant treatment. Rivaroxaban induced a significant prolongation of the prothrombin time (15.8±1.3 versus 12.3±0.7 seconds at baseline; P<0.001) that was immediately and completely reversed by PCC (12.8±1.0; P<0.001). The endogenous thrombin potential was inhibited by rivaroxaban (51±22%; baseline, 92±22%; P=0.002) and normalized with PCC (114±26%; P<0.001), whereas saline had no effect. Dabigatran increased the activated partial thromboplastin time, ecarin clotting time (ECT), and thrombin time. Administration of PCC did not restore these coagulation tests. Prothrombin complex concentrate immediately and completely reverses the anticoagulant effect of rivaroxaban in healthy subjects but has no influence on the anticoagulant action of dabigatran at the PCC dose used in this study. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.trialregister.nl. Unique identifier: NTR2272.
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            Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the oral direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran etexilate.

            The direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran etexilate is currently in phase III of development for the prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolic disorders, with three trials completed in primary venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention. Dabigatran etexilate is an orally administered prodrug, which is rapidly absorbed and converted to the active form, dabigatran. Dabigatran has been shown to specifically and reversibly inhibit thrombin, the key enzyme in the coagulation cascade. Studies in healthy volunteers and in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery have indicated that dabigatran has a predictable pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile, allowing for a fixed-dose regimen. Peak plasma concentrations of dabigatran are reached approximately 2 hours after oral administration in healthy volunteers, with no unexpected accumulation of drug concentrations upon multiple dosing. Excretion is predominantly via the renal route as unchanged drug. Dabigatran is not metabolized by cytochrome P450 isoenzymes. The small differences in dabigatran pharmacokinetics associated with age and gender are attributed to variations in renal function. Additional studies have shown that the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile of dabigatran is consistent across a range of patient populations, with no effect of moderate hepatic impairment being observed. Drug-drug interactions are not observed with concomitant administration of atorvastatin, diclofenac or digoxin. The pharmacodynamic profile of dabigatran demonstrates effective anticoagulation combined with a low risk of bleeding. Further phase III studies are ongoing, including acute VTE treatment and stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation; the results obtained so far show that dabigatran etexilate is well tolerated and effective in the treatment and prevention of thromboembolic events.
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              Hemostatic therapy in experimental intracerebral hemorrhage associated with the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran.

              Dabigatran-etexilate (DE) recently has been approved for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. However, lack of effective antagonists represents a major concern in the event of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The aims of the present study were to establish a murine model of ICH associated with dabigatran, and to test the efficacy of different hemostatic factors in preventing hematoma growth. In C57BL/6 mice receiving DE (4.5 or 9.0 mg/kg), in vivo and in vitro coagulation assays and dabigatran plasma levels were measured repeatedly. Thirty minutes after inducing ICH by striatal collagenase injection, mice received an intravenous injection of saline, prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC; 100 U/kg), murine fresh-frozen plasma (200 μL), or recombinant human factor VIIa (8.0 mg/kg). ICH volume was quantified on brain cryosections 24 hours later. DE substantially prolonged tail vein bleeding time and ecarin clotting time for 4 hours corresponding to dabigatran plasma levels. Intracerebral hematoma expansion was observed mainly during the first 3 hours on serial T2* MRI. Anticoagulation with high doses of DE increased the hematoma volume significantly. PCC and, less consistently, fresh-frozen plasma prevented excess hematoma expansion caused by DE, whereas recombinant human factor VIIa was ineffective. Prevention of hematoma growth and reversal of tail vein bleeding time by PCC were dose-dependent. The study provides strong evidence that PCC and, less consistently, fresh-frozen plasma prevent excess intracerebral hematoma expansion in a murine ICH model associated with dabigatran. The efficacy and safety of this strategy must be further evaluated in clinical studies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                American Journal of Kidney Diseases
                American Journal of Kidney Diseases
                Elsevier BV
                02726386
                September 2013
                September 2013
                : 62
                : 3
                : 591-594
                Article
                10.1053/j.ajkd.2013.02.361
                23597859
                © 2013

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