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      Effects of grazing on orthopteran assemblages of Central-European sand grasslands

      Journal of Orthoptera Research

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          The effect of grazing on Orthoptera assemblages has long been the focus of research worldwide due to the high sensitivity of orthopterans to changes in vegetation structure. According to previous studies, grazing has individual, spatially-different effects on orthopteran assemblages. The current case study was carried out between 2012 and 2016 in a subarea dominated by open sandy grasslands in the Carpathian Basin. The ~70 ha study area was grazed by 250–300 sheep in 2012. In the beginning of 2014, the overgrazing pressure was overall reduced, for the most part, in the examined grassland patches. The study aimed to answer how the complete abandonment of grazing and moderate grazing influences the species richness, diversity and density of the orthopteran assemblages. Investigations in Central European sand steppes confirmed that both intense grazing and the abandonment of grazing have a detrimental effect on the structure of orthopteran assemblages: (a) the Shannon diversity index was higher on moderately grazed sites than on grazed and ungrazed ones; (b) the number of habitat specialists of sandy grasslands was higher on moderately grazed patches than in grazed habitats; and (c) the frequency of geophilic species was higher on grazed patches than on moderately grazed and grazing-abandoned ones.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs.

          The commonly observed high diversity of trees in tropical rain forests and corals on tropical reefs is a nonequilibrium state which, if not disturbed further, will progress toward a low-diversity equilibrium community. This may not happen if gradual changes in climate favor different species. If equilibrium is reached, a lesser degree of diversity may be sustained by niche diversification or by a compensatory mortality that favors inferior competitors. However, tropical forests and reefs are subject to severe disturbances often enough that equilibrium may never be attained.
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            GRAZING SYSTEMS, ECOSYSTEM RESPONSES, AND GLOBAL CHANGE

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              Constraints in the restoration of ecological diversity in grassland and heathland communities.

               J. Bakker,  F Berendse (1999)
              Species-rich grassland and heathland communities still occur in low-intensity farming systems in many European countries. Gradually, such systems have either been abandoned or more intensively exploited, with a subsequent decrease in species numbers. Until recently, it was thought that restoration of these communities would be straightforward. However, abiotic constraints (with respect to eutrophication and acidification) have hampered restoration more than previously thought. Moreover, very recent research has revealed that biotic constraints can also be important: many plant species are not present in the soil seed bank and their dispersal is limited in the present fragmented landscape.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Orthoptera Research
                JOR
                Pensoft Publishers
                1937-2426
                1082-6467
                June 12 2018
                June 12 2018
                : 27
                : 1
                : 23-33
                Article
                10.3897/jor.27.15033
                © 2018

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