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      Atomic-layer molybdenum sulfide optical modulator for visible coherent light

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          Abstract

          Coherent light sources in the visible range are playing important roles in our daily life and modern technology, since about 50% of the capability of the our human brains is devoted to processing visual information. Visible lasers can be achieved by nonlinear optical process of infrared lasers and direct lasing of gain materials, and the latter has advantages in the aspects of compactness, efficiency, simplicity, etc. However, due to lack of visible optical modulators, the directly generated visible lasers with only a gain material are constrained in continuous-wave operation. Here, we demonstrated the fabrication of a visible optical modulator and pulsed visible lasers based on atomic-layer molybdenum sulfide (MoS 2), a ultrathin two-dimensional material with about 9–10 layers. By employing the nonlinear absorption of the modulator, the pulsed orange, red and deep red lasers were directly generated. Besides, the present atomic-layer MoS 2 optical modulator has broadband modulating properties and advantages in the simple preparation process. The present results experimentally verify the theoretical prediction for the low-dimensional optoelectronic modulating devices in the visible wavelength region and may open an attractive avenue for removing a stumbling block for the further development of pulsed visible lasers.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Control of valley polarization in monolayer MoS2 by optical helicity

          Electronic and spintronic devices rely on the fact that free charge carriers in solids carry electric charge and spin, respectively. There are, however, other properties of charge carriers that might be exploited in new families of devices. In particular, if there are two or more conduction (or valence) band extrema in momentum space, then confining charge carriers in one of these valleys allows the possibility of valleytronic devices. Such valley polarization has been demonstrated by using strain and magnetic fields, but neither of these approaches allow for dynamic control. Recently, optical control of valley occupancy in graphene with broken inversion symmetry has been proposed but remains experimentally difficult to realize. Here we demonstrate that optical pumping with circularly-polarized light can achieve complete dynamic valley polarization in monolayer MoS2, a two dimensional (2D) non-centrosymmetric crystal with direct energy gaps at two valleys. Moreover, this polarization is retained for longer than 1 ns. Our results demonstrate the viability of optical valley control and valley-based electronic and optoelectronic applications in MoS2 monolayers.
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            Anomalous Lattice Vibrations of Single and Few-Layer MoS2

            Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) of single and few-layer thickness was exfoliated on SiO2/Si substrate and characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The number of S-Mo-S layers of the samples was independently determined by contact-mode atomic-force microscopy. Two Raman modes, E12g and A1g, exhibited sensitive thickness dependence, with the frequency of the former decreasing and that of the latter increasing with thickness. The results provide a convenient and reliable means for determining layer thickness with atomic-level precision. The opposite direction of the frequency shifts, which cannot be explained solely by van der Waals interlayer coupling, is attributed to Coulombic interactions and possible stacking-induced changes of the intralayer bonding. This work exemplifies the evolution of structural parameters in layered materials in changing from the 3-dimensional to the 2-dimensional regime.
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              Valley polarization in MoS2 monolayers by optical pumping

               ,  ,   (2013)
              We report experimental evidences on selective occupation of the degenerate valleys in MoS2 monolayers by circularly polarized optical pumping. Over 30% valley polarization has been observed at K and K' valley via the polarization resolved luminescence spectra on pristine MoS2 monolayers. It demonstrates one viable way to generate and detect valley polarization towards the conceptual valleytronics applications with information carried by the valley index.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials and Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University , Jinan 250100, China
                [2 ]School of Physics, Shandong University , Jinan 250100, China
                [3 ]NEST Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR and Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Pisa , Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa, Italy
                Author notes
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                12 June 2015
                2015
                : 5
                26067821 4464310 srep11342 10.1038/srep11342
                Copyright © 2015, Macmillan Publishers Limited

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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