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      A digest of elasmobranch tapeworms.

      The Journal of parasitology

      American Society of Parasitologists

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          Abstract

          This review brings together decades of work on elasmobranch tapeworms. The field has advanced significantly over the past 20 yr, with an emphasis on the discovery and description of novel taxa, and the establishment of phylogenetic frameworks for individual orders and their interrelationships. Tapeworms parasitizing elasmobranchs represent 9 orders and include 977 species and 201 genera-over 250 species and 50 genera are new within the last 2 decades. The 9 orders are treated individually, highlighting recent assessments of phylogenetic relationships informed by molecular sequence data. All but the "Tetraphyllidea" are monophyletic. Although much remains to be learned about their interrelationships, existing phylogenetic hypotheses suggest that elasmobranch tapeworms have played a key role in the evolution of the cestodes of essentially all other vertebrate groups. The apical organ is a defining feature (i.e., a synapomorphy) of a clade consisting of acetabulate taxa and Litobothriidea. Novel hook amino acid composition data support the independent origin of hooks in the various groups of hooked tapeworms. Cestode records exist for representatives of most of the major groups of elasmobranchs, however skates (Rajiformes) and catsharks ("Scyliorhinidae") are particularly neglected in terms of species sampled. The majority of tapeworm species are extremely host-specific exhibiting species-specific (i.e., oioxenous) associations with their hosts. Rapid advancements in elasmobranch taxonomy, with over 300 of the 1,200 species appearing new in the past 20 yr, signal the need for careful attention to be paid to host identifications; such identifications are best documented using a combination of specimen, photographic, and molecular data. Above the species level, many cestode taxa are restricted to host orders, families, or even genera. Documentation of these affiliations allows robust predictions to be made regarding the cestode faunas of unexplored elasmobranchs. Trypanorhynchs are the notable exceptions. Life cycles remain poorly known. Recent applications of molecular methods to larval identifications have reinvigorated this area of research. Tapeworms are more diverse in elasmobranchs of tropical and subtropical waters, but they occur globally not only at the poles and in deep waters, but also in freshwaters of South America and Southeast Asia. The cestode faunas of batoids are much more speciose and complex than those of sharks. The faunas of deeper water sharks are particularly depauperate. The tapeworms of elasmobranchs and their hosts are now among the most well documented host-parasite systems in existence. This system has not yet reached its potential as a resource for investigations of basic ecological and evolutionary principles.

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          Most cited references 145

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          A DNA Sequence–Based Approach To the Identification of Shark and Ray Species and Its Implications for Global Elasmobranch Diversity and Parasitology

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              Interrelationships and evolution of the tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda).

              Interrelationships of the tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) were examined by use of small (SSU) and large (LSU) subunit ribosomal DNA sequences and morphological characters. Fifty new complete SSU sequences were added to 21 sequences previously determined, and 71 new LSU (D1-D3) sequences were determined for the complementary set of taxa representing each of the major lineages of cestodes as currently understood. New sequences were determined for three amphilinidean taxa, but were removed from both alignments due to their excessively high degree of divergence from other cestode sequences. A morphological character matrix coded for supraspecific taxa was constructed by the modification of matrices from recently published studies. Maximum-parsimony (MP) analyses were performed on the LSU, SSU, LSU+SSU, and morphological data partitions, and minimum-evolution (ME) analyses utilizing a general time reversible model of nucleotide substitution including estimates of among-site rate heterogeneity were performed on the molecular data partitions. Resulting topologies were rooted at the node separating the Gyrocotylidea from the Eucestoda. The LSU data were found to be more informative than the SSU data and were more consistent with inferences from morphology, although nodal support was generally weak for most basal nodes. One class of transitions was found to be saturated for comparisons between the most distantly related taxa (gyrocotylideans vs cyclophyllideans and tetrabothriideans). Differences in the topologies resulting from MP and ME analyses were not statistically significant. Nonstrobilate orders formed the basal lineages of trees resulting from analysis of LSU data and morphology. Difossate orders were basal to tetrafossate orders, the latter of which formed a strongly supported clade. A clade including the orders Cyclophyllidea, Nippotaeniidea, and Tetrabothriidea was supported by all data partitions and methods of analysis. Paraphyly of the orders Pseudophyllidea, Tetraphyllidea, and Trypanorhyncha was consistent among the molecular data partitions. Inferences are made regarding a monozoic (nonsegmented) origin of the Eucestoda as represented by the Caryophyllidea and for the evolution of the strobilate and acetabulate/tetrafossate conditions having evolved in a stepwise pattern. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                24845052
                10.1645/14-516.1

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