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      The Past, Present, and Future of the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid ( Adelges tsugae) and Its Ecological Interactions with Eastern Hemlock ( Tsuga canadensis) Forests

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          Abstract

          The nonnative hemlock woolly adelgid is steadily killing eastern hemlock trees in many parts of eastern North America. We summarize impacts of the adelgid on these forest foundation species; review previous models and analyses of adelgid spread dynamics; and examine how previous forecasts of adelgid spread and ecosystem dynamics compare with current conditions. The adelgid has reset successional sequences, homogenized biological diversity at landscape scales, altered hydrological dynamics, and changed forest stands from carbon sinks into carbon sources. A new model better predicts spread of the adelgid in the south and west of the range of hemlock, but still under-predicts its spread in the north and east. Whether these underpredictions result from inadequately modeling accelerating climate change or accounting for people inadvertently moving the adelgid into new locales needs further study. Ecosystem models of adelgid-driven hemlock dynamics have consistently forecast that forest carbon stocks will be little affected by the shift from hemlock to early-successional mixed hardwood stands, but these forecasts have assumed that the intermediate stages will remain carbon sinks. New forecasting models of adelgid-driven hemlock decline should account for observed abrupt changes in carbon flux and ongoing and accelerating human-driven land-use and climatic changes.

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          A METHOD FOR SCALING VEGETATION DYNAMICS: THE ECOSYSTEM DEMOGRAPHY MODEL (ED)

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            Forest Response to the Introduced Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Southern New England, USA

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              Nonnative forest insects and pathogens in the United States: Impacts and policy options

              Abstract We review and synthesize information on invasions of nonnative forest insects and diseases in the United States, including their ecological and economic impacts, pathways of arrival, distribution within the United States, and policy options for reducing future invasions. Nonnative insects have accumulated in United States forests at a rate of ~2.5 per yr over the last 150 yr. Currently the two major pathways of introduction are importation of live plants and wood packing material such as pallets and crates. Introduced insects and diseases occur in forests and cities throughout the United States, and the problem is particularly severe in the Northeast and Upper Midwest. Nonnative forest pests are the only disturbance agent that has effectively eliminated entire tree species or genera from United States forests within decades. The resulting shift in forest structure and species composition alters ecosystem functions such as productivity, nutrient cycling, and wildlife habitat. In urban and suburban areas, loss of trees from streets, yards, and parks affects aesthetics, property values, shading, stormwater runoff, and human health. The economic damage from nonnative pests is not yet fully known, but is likely in the billions of dollars per year, with the majority of this economic burden borne by municipalities and residential property owners. Current policies for preventing introductions are having positive effects but are insufficient to reduce the influx of pests in the face of burgeoning global trade. Options are available to strengthen the defenses against pest arrival and establishment, including measures taken in the exporting country prior to shipment, measures to ensure clean shipments of plants and wood products, inspections at ports of entry, and post‐entry measures such as quarantines, surveillance, and eradication programs. Improved data collection procedures for inspections, greater data accessibility, and better reporting would support better evaluation of policy effectiveness. Lack of additional action places the nation, local municipalities, and property owners at high risk of further damaging and costly invasions. Adopting stronger policies to reduce establishments of new forest insects and diseases would shift the major costs of control to the source and alleviate the economic burden now borne by homeowners and municipalities.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Insects
                Insects
                insects
                Insects
                MDPI
                2075-4450
                23 November 2018
                December 2018
                : 9
                : 4
                : 172
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Harvard Forest, Harvard University, 324 North Main Street, Petersham, MA 01366, USA; orwig@ 123456fas.harvard.edu
                [2 ]Appalachian Laboratory, Center for Environmental Science, University of Maryland, 301 Braddock Road, Frostburg, MD 21532, USA; mfitzpatrick@ 123456umces.edu
                [3 ]Department of Biological Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA; preisser@ 123456uri.edu
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: aellison@ 123456fas.harvard.edu ; Tel.: +1-978-756-6178
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4151-6081
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8737-5619
                Article
                insects-09-00172
                10.3390/insects9040172
                6316461
                30477155
                211da7e8-fa94-4ae6-8cc0-3c3b6f12b517
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 23 October 2018
                : 20 November 2018
                Categories
                Review

                carbon flux,carbon stocks,dispersal,ecological forecasting,ecosystem dynamics,forest,invasive species,mortality,spread

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