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      White Tip Silver Needle (Slightly Fermented White Tea) Flavonoids Help Prevent Aging via Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Effects

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          White tip silver needle, a slightly fermented white tea, is abundant in flavonoids, and it has great significance in terms of D-galactose/lipopolysaccharide-induced aging in mice.


          We analyzed the antioxidant capacity of white tip silver needle flavonoids (WTSNF) in vitro, assessed the effects of WTSNF on organ indexes, pathological changes, liver function indexes, biochemical indicators, molecular biological indicators, and genes related to oxidation and inflammation.


          Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry results showed that WTSNF contained baicalin, kaempferol, kaempferide, quercetin, isorhamnetin, lespenephryl, and rutin. WTSNF showed strong scavenging ability for both 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2ʹ-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) free radicals. Pathological analysis results showed that WTSNF reduced liver, kidney, and lung damage in mice with induced aging. In the serum and liver tissue, WTSNF effectively increased the antioxidant-related levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione, and total antioxidant capacity and reduced the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide. WTSNF also reduced the inflammation-related levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and increased the levels of interleukin-10 and interleukin-12. Furthermore, WTSNF upregulated the mRNA expression levels of cupro-zinc superoxide dismutase, manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, interleukin-10, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor, heme oxygenase 1, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1, nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκB-α), and thioredoxin, while it downregulated the mRNA expression levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-18, interleukin-1 beta, TNFα, IFN-γ, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and nuclear factor kappa-light chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB).


          WTSNF is a high-quality natural product with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties that can inhibits D-galactose/lipopolysaccharide-induced aging in mice.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Comparison of ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC assays for estimating antioxidant activity from guava fruit extracts

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            A review on the dietary flavonoid kaempferol.

            Epidemiological studies have revealed that a diet rich in plant-derived foods has a protective effect on human health. Identifying bioactive dietary constituents is an active area of scientific investigation that may lead to new drug discovery. Kaempferol (3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one) is a flavonoid found in many edible plants (e.g. tea, broccoli, cabbage, kale, beans, endive, leek, tomato, strawberries and grapes) and in plants or botanical products commonly used in traditional medicine (e.g. Ginkgo biloba, Tilia spp, Equisetum spp, Moringa oleifera, Sophora japonica and propolis). Some epidemiological studies have found a positive association between the consumption of foods containing kaempferol and a reduced risk of developing several disorders such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Numerous preclinical studies have shown that kaempferol and some glycosides of kaempferol have a wide range of pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, antidiabetic, anti-osteoporotic, estrogenic/antiestrogenic, anxiolytic, analgesic and antiallergic activities. In this article, the distribution of kaempferol in the plant kingdom and its pharmacological properties are reviewed. The pharmacokinetics (e.g. oral bioavailability, metabolism, plasma levels) and safety of kaempferol are also analyzed. This information may help understand the health benefits of kaempferol-containing plants and may contribute to develop this flavonoid as a possible agent for the prevention and treatment of some diseases.
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              The nuclear factor NF-kappaB pathway in inflammation.

               Toby Lawrence (2009)
              The nuclear factor NF-kappaB pathway has long been considered a prototypical proinflammatory signaling pathway, largely based on the role of NF-kappaB in the expression of proinflammatory genes including cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules. In this article, we describe how genetic evidence in mice has revealed complex roles for the NF-kappaB in inflammation that suggest both pro- and anti-inflammatory roles for this pathway. NF-kappaB has long been considered the "holy grail" as a target for new anti-inflammatory drugs; however, these recent studies suggest this pathway may prove a difficult target in the treatment of chronic disease. In this article, we discuss the role of NF-kappaB in inflammation in light of these recent studies.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                31 March 2021
                : 15
                : 1441-1457
                [1 ]Chongqing Collaborative Innovation Center for Functional Food, Chongqing University of Education , Chongqing, 400067, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Functional Food, Chongqing University of Education , Chongqing, 400067, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Chongqing Engineering Laboratory for Research and Development of Functional Food, Chongqing University of Education , Chongqing, 400067, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Dazu District People’s Hospital , Chongqing, 402360, People’s Republic of China
                [5 ]College of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Education , Chongqing, 400067, People’s Republic of China
                [6 ]School of Pharmacy, Heilongjiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine , Harbin, 150040, People’s Republic of China
                [7 ]The First Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chongqing Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital , Chongqing, 400021, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Xin Zhao; Hong Chen Tel +86-23-6265-3650 Email zhaoxin@cque.edu.cn; 1528779302@qq.com

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2021 Li et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 9, Tables: 11, References: 43, Pages: 17
                Original Research


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