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      Molecular characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) produced by clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii in Saudi Arabia


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          Acinetobacter baumannii is a common opportunistic pathogen that causes major nosocomial infections in hospitals. In this study, we hypothesized a high prevalence of A. baumanni ESBL (extended-spectrum beta-lactamase) among all collected isolates.


          A. baumannii isolates (n = 107) from ICU (Intensive care unit) of local hospitals in Makkah were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. The identity and antibiotic susceptibility of A. baumannii strains were determined using the Vitek-2 system. The identified ESBL producers were further analyzed by PCR and sequencing followed by MLST typing. bla TEM , bla SHV , and the bla CTX- M- group genes 1, 2, 8, 9, and 25 were investigated. Furthermore, bla OXA51- like and bla OXA23- like genes were also examined in the carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates.


          Our data indicated a high prevalence of A. baumannii ESBL producers among the collected strains. Of the 107 A. baumannii isolates, 94 % were found to be resistant to cefepime and ceftazidime, and aztreonam using the Vitek 2 system. The genes detected encoded TEM, OXA-51-like and OXA-23-like enzymes, and CTX-M-group proteins 1, 2, 8, 9, and 25. MLST typing identified eight sequence type (ST) groups. The most dominant STs were ST195 and ST557 and all of them belong to worldwide clonal complex (CC) 2.


          This study has shown that there is a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in A. baumannii. The diversity of STs may suggest that new ESBL strains are constantly emerging. The molecular diversity of the ESBL genes in A. baumannii may have contributed to the increased antimicrobial resistance among all isolates.

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          Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases: a Clinical Update

          Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are a rapidly evolving group of β-lactamases which share the ability to hydrolyze third-generation cephalosporins and aztreonam yet are inhibited by clavulanic acid. Typically, they derive from genes for TEM-1, TEM-2, or SHV-1 by mutations that alter the amino acid configuration around the active site of these β-lactamases. This extends the spectrum of β-lactam antibiotics susceptible to hydrolysis by these enzymes. An increasing number of ESBLs not of TEM or SHV lineage have recently been described. The presence of ESBLs carries tremendous clinical significance. The ESBLs are frequently plasmid encoded. Plasmids responsible for ESBL production frequently carry genes encoding resistance to other drug classes (for example, aminoglycosides). Therefore, antibiotic options in the treatment of ESBL-producing organisms are extremely limited. Carbapenems are the treatment of choice for serious infections due to ESBL-producing organisms, yet carbapenem-resistant isolates have recently been reported. ESBL-producing organisms may appear susceptible to some extended-spectrum cephalosporins. However, treatment with such antibiotics has been associated with high failure rates. There is substantial debate as to the optimal method to prevent this occurrence. It has been proposed that cephalosporin breakpoints for the Enterobacteriaceae should be altered so that the need for ESBL detection would be obviated. At present, however, organizations such as the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (formerly the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) provide guidelines for the detection of ESBLs in klebsiellae and Escherichia coli . In common to all ESBL detection methods is the general principle that the activity of extended-spectrum cephalosporins against ESBL-producing organisms will be enhanced by the presence of clavulanic acid. ESBLs represent an impressive example of the ability of gram-negative bacteria to develop new antibiotic resistance mechanisms in the face of the introduction of new antimicrobial agents.
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            Development of a set of multiplex PCR assays for the detection of genes encoding important beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae.

            To develop a rapid and reliable tool to detect by multiplex PCR assays the most frequently widespread beta-lactamase genes encoding the OXA-1-like broad-spectrum beta-lactamases, extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases and class A, B and D carbapenemases. Following the design of a specific group of primers and optimization using control strains, a set of six multiplex PCRs and one simplex PCR was created. An evaluation of the set was performed using a collection of 31 Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from clinical specimens showing a resistance phenotype towards broad-spectrum cephalosporins and/or cephamycins and/or carbapenems. Direct sequencing from PCR products was subsequently carried out to identify beta-lactamase genes. Under optimized conditions, all positive controls confirmed the specificity of group-specific PCR primers. Except for the detection of carbapenemase genes, multiplex and simplex PCR assays were carried out using the same PCR conditions, allowing assays to be performed in a single run. Out of 31 isolates selected, 22 strains produced an ESBL, mostly CTX-M-15 but also CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-9, SHV-12, SHV-5, SHV-2, TEM-21, TEM-52 and a VEB-type ESBL, 6 strains produced a plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase (five DHA-1 and one CMY-2) and 3 strains produced both an ESBL (two SHV-12, one CTX-M-15) and a plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase (DHA-1). We report here the development of a useful method composed of a set of six multiplex PCRs and one simplex PCR for the rapid screening of the most frequently encountered beta-lactamases. This method allowed direct sequencing from the PCR products.
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              Acinetobacter baumannii: epidemiology, antimicrobial resistance, and treatment options.

              Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is recognized to be among the most difficult antimicrobial-resistant gram-negative bacilli to control and treat. Increasing antimicrobial resistance among Acinetobacter isolates has been documented, although definitions of multidrug resistance vary in the literature. A. baumannii survives for prolonged periods under a wide range of environmental conditions. The organism causes outbreaks of infection and health care-associated infections, including bacteremia, pneumonia, meningitis, urinary tract infection, and wound infection. Antimicrobial resistance greatly limits the therapeutic options for patients who are infected with this organism, especially if isolates are resistant to the carbapenem class of antimicrobial agents. Because therapeutic options are limited for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter infection, the development or discovery of new therapies, well-controlled clinical trials of existing antimicrobial regimens and combinations, and greater emphasis on the prevention of health care-associated transmission of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter infection are essential.

                Author and article information

                +966 1 481 3806 , eyamani@kacst.edu.sa
                Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob
                Ann. Clin. Microbiol. Antimicrob
                Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
                BioMed Central (London )
                20 August 2015
                20 August 2015
                : 14
                [ ]Molecular Bacteriology, National Center for Biotechnology, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh, 11442 Saudi Arabia
                [ ]Herra General Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
                © Alyamani et al. 2015

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2015

                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                acinetobacter baumannii,phenotyping,genotyping,saudi arabia
                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                acinetobacter baumannii, phenotyping, genotyping, saudi arabia


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