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      The effects of parental control and warmth on problematic internet use in adolescents: A prospective cohort study

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          Abstract

          Background and aims

          Problematic internet use (PIU) is a highly prevalent condition with severe adverse effects. The literature suggests that parent-child bonding and parental behavioral control exert protective effects against PIU. However, the most relevant studies rely on simplistic measurement of parenting, cross-sectional designs and mixed-aged samples. Our study analyzed the effect of maternal and paternal parenting on PIU by using a prospective design and a cohort sample of same-aged children.

          Methods

          Data from 1,019 Czech 12-year-old sixth-graders who were followed until ninth grade were used. Maternal and paternal responsiveness and strictness were reported by children using the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ) and the Parental Control Scale (PCS). PIU was measured by the Excessive Internet Use Scale (EIUS).

          Results

          The self-reported PIU prevalence in nine-graders (15-year-old) was 8.1%. Parenting, reported by adolescents 18 months before PIU screening, showed significant relationships with PIU: parental responsiveness was negatively and moderately associated, while maternal strictness showed a weak positive association; the authoritative parenting style in both parents decreased PIU, with a PIU probability of 3.21%, while a combination of maternal authoritarian and paternal neglectful parenting was associated with PIU probability as high as 20.9%.

          Discussion and conclusions

          The self-reported prevalence of PIU in Czech adolescents was found to be high. The effects of parenting on PIU were similar to the effects of parenting on other problematic behavior among adolescents. Our findings showed the need for interventions to prevent PIU by helping parents to apply optimal parenting styles.

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          Author and article information

          Contributors
          Journal
          2006
          Journal of Behavioral Addictions
          JBA
          Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
          2062-5871
          2063-5303
          11 October 2020
          24 September 2020
          : 9
          : 3
          : 664-675
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Psychology, Faculty of Education, Charles University , Prague, Czech Republic
          [2 ] Department of Addictology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University , Prague, Czech Republic
          [3 ] Department of Addictology, General University Hospital in Prague , Prague, Czech Republic
          Author notes
          [* ]Corresponding author. E-mail: katerina.lukavska@ 123456lf1.cuni.cz
          Article
          10.1556/2006.2020.00068
          © 2020 The Author(s)

          Open Access. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

          Page count
          Figures: 4, Tables: 7, Equations: 0, References: 38, Pages: 12
          Funding
          Funded by: Czech Science Foundation
          Award ID: 16-15771S
          Funded by: Charles University in Prague
          Award ID: Q06
          Categories
          Full-Length Report

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