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      What's in this Collection Dataset? Semantic Annotation with GATE

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      Biodiversity Information Science and Standards

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Semantic annotations of datasets are very useful to support quality assurance, discovery, interpretability, linking and integration of datasets. However, providing such annotations manually is often a time-consuming task . If the process is to be at least partially automated and still provide good semantic annotations, precise information extraction is needed. The recognition of entity names (e.g., person, organization, location) from textual resources is the first step before linking the identified term or phrase to other semantic resources such as concepts in ontologies. A multitude of tools and techniques have been developed for information extraction. One of the big players is the text mining framework GATE (Cunningham et al. 2013) that supports annotation rules, semantic techniques and machine learning approaches. We will run GATE's default ANNIE pipeline on collection datasets to automatically detect persons, locations and time. We will also present extensions to extract organisms (Naderi et al. 2011), environmental terms, data parameters and biological processes and how to link them to ontologies and LOD resources, e.g., DBPedia (Sateli and Witte 2015). We would like to discuss the results with the conference participants and welcome comments and feedbacks on the current solution. The audience is also welcome to provide their own datasets in preparation for this session.

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          Getting More Out of Biomedical Documents with GATE's Full Lifecycle Open Source Text Analytics

          This software article describes the GATE family of open source text analysis tools and processes. GATE is one of the most widely used systems of its type with yearly download rates of tens of thousands and many active users in both academic and industrial contexts. In this paper we report three examples of GATE-based systems operating in the life sciences and in medicine. First, in genome-wide association studies which have contributed to discovery of a head and neck cancer mutation association. Second, medical records analysis which has significantly increased the statistical power of treatment/outcome models in the UK's largest psychiatric patient cohort. Third, richer constructs in drug-related searching. We also explore the ways in which the GATE family supports the various stages of the lifecycle present in our examples. We conclude that the deployment of text mining for document abstraction or rich search and navigation is best thought of as a process, and that with the right computational tools and data collection strategies this process can be made defined and repeatable. The GATE research programme is now 20 years old and has grown from its roots as a specialist development tool for text processing to become a rather comprehensive ecosystem, bringing together software developers, language engineers and research staff from diverse fields. GATE now has a strong claim to cover a uniquely wide range of the lifecycle of text analysis systems. It forms a focal point for the integration and reuse of advances that have been made by many people (the majority outside of the authors' own group) who work in text processing for biomedicine and other areas. GATE is available online under GNU open source licences and runs on all major operating systems. Support is available from an active user and developer community and also on a commercial basis.
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            OrganismTagger: detection, normalization and grounding of organism entities in biomedical documents.

            Semantic tagging of organism mentions in full-text articles is an important part of literature mining and semantic enrichment solutions. Tagged organism mentions also play a pivotal role in disambiguating other entities in a text, such as proteins. A high-precision organism tagging system must be able to detect the numerous forms of organism mentions, including common names as well as the traditional taxonomic groups: genus, species and strains. In addition, such a system must resolve abbreviations and acronyms, assign the scientific name and if possible link the detected mention to the NCBI Taxonomy database for further semantic queries and literature navigation. We present the OrganismTagger, a hybrid rule-based/machine learning system to extract organism mentions from the literature. It includes tools for automatically generating lexical and ontological resources from a copy of the NCBI Taxonomy database, thereby facilitating system updates by end users. Its novel ontology-based resources can also be reused in other semantic mining and linked data tasks. Each detected organism mention is normalized to a canonical name through the resolution of acronyms and abbreviations and subsequently grounded with an NCBI Taxonomy database ID. In particular, our system combines a novel machine-learning approach with rule-based and lexical methods for detecting strain mentions in documents. On our manually annotated OT corpus, the OrganismTagger achieves a precision of 95%, a recall of 94% and a grounding accuracy of 97.5%. On the manually annotated corpus of Linnaeus-100, the results show a precision of 99%, recall of 97% and grounding accuracy of 97.4%. The OrganismTagger, including supporting tools, resources, training data and manual annotations, as well as end user and developer documentation, is freely available under an open-source license at http://www.semanticsoftware.info/organism-tagger. witte@semanticsoftware.info.
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              Semantic representation of scientific literature: bringing claims, contributions and named entities onto the Linked Open Data cloud

               Bahar Sateli (corresponding) ,  René Witte (corresponding) ,  Tamara Sumner (2015)
              Motivation. Finding relevant scientific literature is one of the essential tasks researchers are facing on a daily basis. Digital libraries and web information retrieval techniques provide rapid access to a vast amount of scientific literature. However, no further automated support is available that would enable fine-grained access to the knowledge ‘stored’ in these documents. The emerging domain of Semantic Publishing aims at making scientific knowledge accessible to both humans and machines, by adding semantic annotations to content, such as a publication’s contributions, methods, or application domains. However, despite the promises of better knowledge access, the manual annotation of existing research literature is prohibitively expensive for wide-spread adoption. We argue that a novel combination of three distinct methods can significantly advance this vision in a fully-automated way: (i) Natural Language Processing (NLP) for Rhetorical Entity (RE) detection; (ii) Named Entity (NE) recognition based on the Linked Open Data (LOD) cloud; and (iii) automatic knowledge base construction for both NEs and REs using semantic web ontologies that interconnect entities in documents with the machine-readable LOD cloud.Results. We present a complete workflow to transform scientific literature into a semantic knowledge base, based on the W3C standards RDF and RDFS. A text mining pipeline, implemented based on the GATE framework, automatically extracts rhetorical entities of type Claims and Contributions from full-text scientific literature. These REs are further enriched with named entities, represented as URIs to the linked open data cloud, by integrating the DBpedia Spotlight tool into our workflow. Text mining results are stored in a knowledge base through a flexible export process that provides for a dynamic mapping of semantic annotations to LOD vocabularies through rules stored in the knowledge base. We created a gold standard corpus from computer science conference proceedings and journal articles, where Claim and Contribution sentences are manually annotated with their respective types using LOD URIs. The performance of the RE detection phase is evaluated against this corpus, where it achieves an average F-measure of 0.73. We further demonstrate a number of semantic queries that show how the generated knowledge base can provide support for numerous use cases in managing scientific literature.Availability. All software presented in this paper is available under open source licenses at http://www.semanticsoftware.info/semantic-scientific-literature-peerj-2015-supplements. Development releases of individual components are additionally available on our GitHub page at https://github.com/SemanticSoftwareLab.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biodiversity Information Science and Standards
                BISS
                Pensoft Publishers
                2535-0897
                June 18 2019
                June 18 2019
                : 3
                Article
                10.3897/biss.3.37184
                © 2019

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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