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      Porous carbon nanofiber–sulfur composite electrodes for lithium/sulfur cells

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          A highly ordered nanostructured carbon-sulphur cathode for lithium-sulphur batteries.

          The Li-S battery has been under intense scrutiny for over two decades, as it offers the possibility of high gravimetric capacities and theoretical energy densities ranging up to a factor of five beyond conventional Li-ion systems. Herein, we report the feasibility to approach such capacities by creating highly ordered interwoven composites. The conductive mesoporous carbon framework precisely constrains sulphur nanofiller growth within its channels and generates essential electrical contact to the insulating sulphur. The structure provides access to Li+ ingress/egress for reactivity with the sulphur, and we speculate that the kinetic inhibition to diffusion within the framework and the sorption properties of the carbon aid in trapping the polysulphides formed during redox. Polymer modification of the carbon surface further provides a chemical gradient that retards diffusion of these large anions out of the electrode, thus facilitating more complete reaction. Reversible capacities up to 1,320 mA h g(-1) are attained. The assembly process is simple and broadly applicable, conceptually providing new opportunities for materials scientists for tailored design that can be extended to many different electrode materials.
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            Nanomaterials for rechargeable lithium batteries.

            Energy storage is more important today than at any time in human history. Future generations of rechargeable lithium batteries are required to power portable electronic devices (cellphones, laptop computers etc.), store electricity from renewable sources, and as a vital component in new hybrid electric vehicles. To achieve the increase in energy and power density essential to meet the future challenges of energy storage, new materials chemistry, and especially new nanomaterials chemistry, is essential. We must find ways of synthesizing new nanomaterials with new properties or combinations of properties, for use as electrodes and electrolytes in lithium batteries. Herein we review some of the recent scientific advances in nanomaterials, and especially in nanostructured materials, for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.
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              Challenges for Rechargeable Li Batteries†

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                EESNBY
                Energy & Environmental Science
                Energy Environ. Sci.
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                1754-5692
                1754-5706
                2011
                2011
                : 4
                : 12
                : 5053
                Article
                10.1039/c1ee02256c
                © 2011
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=c1ee02256c

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