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      Effects of easy-to-perform procedures to reduce bacterial colonization with Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus on toothbrushes

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          Abstract

          It is well known that dental caries and periodontitis are the consequence of bacterial colonization and biofilm formation on the enamel surface. The continuous presence of bacterial biofilms on the tooth surface results in demineralization of the tooth enamel and induces an inflammatory reaction of the surrounding gums (gingivitis). The retention and survival of microorganisms on toothbrushes pose a threat of recontamination especially for certain patients at risk for systemic infections originating from the oral cavity, e.g., after T-cell depleted bone marrow transplantation. Thus, the effects of different decolonization schemes on bacterial colonization of toothbrushes were analyzed, in order to demonstrate their applicability to reduce the likelihood of (auto-)reinfections.

          Toothbrushes were intentionally contaminated with standardized suspensions of Streptococcus mutans or Staphylococcus aureus. Afterwards, the toothbrushes were exposed to rinsing under distilled water, rinsing and drying for 24 h, 0.2% chlorhexidine-based decolonization, or ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The remaining colony forming units were compared with freshly contaminated positive controls. Each experiment was nine-fold repeated. Bi-factorial variance analysis was performed; significance was accepted at P < 0.05.

          All tested procedures led to a significant reduction of bacteral colonization irrespective of the toothbrush model, the brush head type, or the acitivity state. Chlorhexidine-based decolonization was shown to be superior to rinsing and slightly superior to rinsing and drying for 24 h, while UV radiation was similarly effective as chlorhexidine. UV radiation was slightly less prone to species-dependent limitations of its decolonizing effects by bristle thickness of toothbrushes than chlorhexidin.

          Reduction of bacterial colonization of toothbrushes might reduce the risk of maintaining bacterial infections of the upper respiratory tract. Accordingly, respective procedures are advisable, particularly as they are cheap and easy to perform.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Anaerobic gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus.

          An investigation of gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus after a switch from aerobic to anaerobic growth was initiated by using the proteomic and transcriptomic approaches. In the absence of external electron acceptors like oxygen or nitrate, an induction of glycolytic enzymes was observed. At the same time the amount of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes was very low. NAD is regenerated by mixed acid and butanediol fermentation, as indicated by an elevated synthesis level of fermentation enzymes like lactate dehydrogenases (Ldh1 and Ldh2), alcohol dehydrogenases (AdhE and Adh), alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (BudA1), acetolactate synthase (BudB), and acetoin reductase (SACOL0111) as well as an accumulation of fermentation products as lactate and acetate. Moreover, the transcription of genes possibly involved in secretion of lactate (SACOL2363) and formate (SACOL0301) was found to be induced. The formation of acetyl-coenzyme A or acetyl-phosphate might be catalyzed by pyruvate formate lyase, whose synthesis was found to be strongly induced as well. Although nitrate was not present, the expression of genes related to nitrate respiration (NarH, NarI, and NarJ) and nitrate reduction (NirD) was found to be upregulated. Of particular interest, oxygen concentration might affect the virulence properties of S. aureus by regulating the expression of some virulence-associated genes such as pls, hly, splC and splD, epiG, and isaB. To date, the mechanism of anaerobic gene expression in S. aureus has not been fully characterized. In addition to srrA the mRNA levels of several other regulatory genes with yet unknown functions (e.g., SACOL0201, SACOL2360, and SACOL2658) were found to be upregulated during anaerobic growth, indicating a role in the regulation of anaerobic gene expression.
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            Use of the germfree animal technic in the study of experimental dental caries. I. Basic observations on rats reared free of all microorganisms.

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              • Record: found
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              Contamination of toothpaste and toothbrush by Streptococcus mutans.

               M J Svanberg (1978)
              Toothbrushes and toothpaste tubes used by persons infected with S. mutans were examined for the presence of this microorganism. Fifteen minutes after brushing greater than 10(6) S. mutans were isolated from the toothbrushes and after ordinary storage for 24 h 10(4) were recovered. From two out of 10 toothpaste tubes S. mutans was isolated from the orifice of the tube. The implications of these findings for the spread of the microorganism are discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                1886
                122234
                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                EuJMI
                Akadémiai Kiadó, co-published with Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V.
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                1 September 2013
                : 3
                : 3
                : 204-210
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Abteilung für Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Universitätsmedizin Göttingen, Kreuzbergring 57, D-37075, Göttingen, Germany
                [ 2 ] UMG-Labor, Institut für Klinische Chemie/Zentrallabor, Universitätsmedizin Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany
                [ 3 ] Abteilung für Präventive Zahnmedizin, Parodontologie und Kariologie, Universitätsmedizin Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany
                [ 4 ] Fachbereich Tropenmedizin am Bernhard-Nocht-Institut, Bundeswehrkrankenhaus Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
                [ 5 ] Institut für Mikrobiologie, Virologie und Hygiene, Universitätsmedizin Rostock, Rostock, Germany
                Author notes
                [* ] +49-551-398549, +49-551-395861, azautne@ 123456gwdg.de
                Article
                9
                10.1556/EuJMI.3.2013.3.9
                3832098
                24265940
                Categories
                Original Article

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