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Medical, morphological and functional aspects of Greek football referees.

The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness

physiology, Adult, Blood Pressure, Body Height, Body Mass Index, Body Weight, Color Vision Defects, physiopathology, Depth Perception, Greece, Health Status, Humans, Intelligence, Male, Middle Aged, Obesity, Physical Endurance, Physical Fitness, Smoking, Soccer, education, Vision Disorders, Vision, Ocular, Visual Acuity

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      Abstract

      The aim of the study was to investigate state of health, morphological and functional profile of football referees (Rs). A prevalence study. 188 Greek active male Rs of A, B, C and D football divisions have been evaluated. Standard clinical-instrumental and anthropometric methods were used. Appropriate functional tests were used for evaluation of visual performance, physical condition and mental ability. Mean age, height, weight, and BMI were 36.3 +/- 4.5 years, 177.4 +/- 5.7 cm, 81.6 +/- 7.8 kg, and 25.9 +/- 2.1 kg.m-2 respectively. 64% and 6% were overweight and obese respectively. In 27.2% resting blood pressure exceeded upper normal limits. Active (41.5%) and former smokers (17.0%) were identified. Visual acuity and colour discrimination were defective in 2.4% and 0.7% respectively. Stereo depth perception deficiently in 7.1%. Compared to international standards, Rs' mean scores in the 6 physical condition field tests were found satisfactory. All Rs were found efficient in the agility test, two-thirds in the maximal and prolonged speed tests and half of them in the endurance test. Relatively more Rs of A and B divisions were found fit as compared to Rs of C and D divisions. Average IQ score was 112.5 +/- 11.1, while about 90% and 34% of the Rs' IQ score was > or = 100 and > or = 120 respectively. Average male Greek football R is an apparently healthy, young to middle aged, rather overweight, and functionally efficient. The great majority of Rs of A and B divisions appear better trained and somewhat better functional than Rs of C and D divisions.

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