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      The COPDnet integrated care model

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          This research project sets out to design an integrated disease management model for patients with COPD who were referred to a secondary care setting and who qualified for pharmacological and nonpharmacological intervention options.

          Theory and methods

          The integrated disease management model was designed according to the guidelines of the European Pathway Association and the content founded on the Chronic Care Model, principles of integrated disease management, and knowledge of quality management systems.

          Results

          An integrated disease management model was created, and comprises 1) a diagnostic trajectory in a secondary care setting, 2) a nonmedical intervention program in a primary care setting, and 3) a pulmonary rehabilitation service in a tertiary care setting. The model also includes a quality management system and regional agreements about exacerbation management and palliative care.

          Discussion

          In the next phase of the project, the COPDnet model will be implemented in at least two different regions, in order to assess the added value of the entire model and its components, in terms of feasibility, health status benefits, and costs of care.

          Conclusion

          Based on scientific theories and models, a new integrated disease management model was developed for COPD patients, named COPDnet. Once the model is stable, it will be evaluated for its feasibility, health status benefits, and costs.

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          Most cited references 48

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          Development and testing of a short form of the patient activation measure.

          The Patient Activation Measure (PAM) is a 22-item measure that assesses patient knowledge, skill, and confidence for self-management. The measure was developed using Rasch analyses and is an interval level, unidimensional, Guttman-like measure. The current analysis is aimed at reducing the number of items in the measure while maintaining adequate precision. We relied on an iterative use of Rasch analysis to identify items that could be eliminated without loss of significant precision and reliability. With each item deletion, the item scale locations were recalibrated and the person reliability evaluated to check if and how much of a decline in precision of measurement resulted from the deletion of the item. The data used in the analysis were the same data used in the development of the original 22-item measure. These data were collected in 2003 via a telephone survey of 1,515 randomly selected adults. Principal Findings. The analysis yielded a 13-item measure that has psychometric properties similar to the original 22-item version. The scores for the 13-item measure range in value from 38.6 to 53.0 (on a theoretical 0-100 point scale). The range of values is essentially unchanged from the original 22-item version. Subgroup analysis suggests that there is a slight loss of precision with some subgroups. The results of the analysis indicate that the shortened 13-item version is both reliable and valid.
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            Evidence on the Chronic Care Model in the new millennium.

            Developed more than a decade ago, the Chronic Care Model (CCM) is a widely adopted approach to improving ambulatory care that has guided clinical quality initiatives in the United States and around the world. We examine the evidence of the CCM's effectiveness by reviewing articles published since 2000 that used one of five key CCM papers as a reference. Accumulated evidence appears to support the CCM as an integrated framework to guide practice redesign. Although work remains to be done in areas such as cost-effectiveness, these studies suggest that redesigning care using the CCM leads to improved patient care and better health outcomes.
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              Systematic review of the chronic care model in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevention and management.

              Implementation of the chronic care model (CCM) has been shown to be an effective preventative strategy to improve outcomes in diabetes mellitus, depression, and congestive heart failure, but data are lacking regarding the effectiveness of this model in preventing complications in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We searched the MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases from inception to August 2005 and included English-language articles that enrolled adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and (1) contained intervention(s) with CCM component(s), (2) included a comparison group or measures at 2 points (before/after), and (3) had relevant outcomes. Two reviewers independently extracted data. Symptoms, quality of life, lung function, and functional status were not significantly different between the intervention and control groups. However, pooled relative risks (95% confidence intervals) for emergency/unscheduled visits and hospitalizations for the group that received at least 2 CCM components were 0.58 (0.42-0.79) and 0.78 (0.66-0.94), respectively. The weighted mean difference (95% confidence interval) for hospital stay was -2.51 (-3.40 to -1.61) days shorter for the group that received 2 or more components. There were no significant differences for those receiving only 1 CCM component. Limited published data exist evaluating the efficacy of CCM components in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease management. However, pooled data demonstrated that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who received interventions with 2 or more CCM components had lower rates of hospitalizations and emergency/unscheduled visits and a shorter length of stay compared with control groups. The results of this review highlight the need for well-designed trials in this population.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2018
                19 July 2018
                : 13
                : 2225-2235
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands, noortje.koolen@ 123456radboudumc.nl
                [2 ]Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, IQ Healthcare, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Eleonore H Koolen, Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Raboud University Medical Center, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, the Netherlands, Email noortje.koolen@ 123456radboudumc.nl
                Article
                copd-13-2225
                10.2147/COPD.S150820
                6056161
                © 2018 Koolen et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                health status, copd, chronic care model, integrated care, copd management

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