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      A Case of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy with HIV Infection in Which HAART Possibly Influenced the Prognosis of Visual Function

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          Background: We report on a patient with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who exhibited extremely active PDR followed by a rapid onset of blindness in the right eye. The progression of visual disturbance in the patient’s left eye was slowed after starting highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), and vision in that eye was rescued after vitrectomy. Case Report: A 72-year-old male developed pneumocystis carinii pneumonia stemming from an HIV infection and began HAART at the Department of Hematology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki City, Japan. Prior to HAART, the patient had shown rapidly progressing retinopathy in the right eye accompanied by vitreous hemorrhage, tractional retinal detachment, and neovascular glaucoma, ultimately leading to early-onset blindness. After starting HAART, the progression of the retinopathy in the left eye became slower compared to the right eye, with corrected visual acuity improving to 0.6 after vitrectomy, despite being accompanied by vitreous hemorrhage. The patient’s overall condition has remained stable following the operation, and the condition of the ocular fundus in the left eye has also settled. Conclusion: Significant differences were found in the progression rate of PDR with HIV infection between before and after starting HAART. Our findings suggest that early administration of HAART to HIV patients with diabetic retinopathy is crucial for maintaining visual function.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Diagnosis, prediction, and natural course of HIV-1 protease-inhibitor-associated lipodystrophy, hyperlipidaemia, and diabetes mellitus: a cohort study.

          The prevalence and severity of lipodystrophy syndrome with long-term therapy for HIV-1 infection that includes a protease inhibitor is unknown. We studied the natural course of the syndrome to develop diagnostic criteria and identifying markers that predict its severity. We assessed 113 patients who were receiving HIV-1 protease inhibitors (mean 21 months) and 45 HIV-1-infected patients (28 with follow-up) never treated with a protease inhibitor. Lipodystrophy was assessed by questionnaire (including patients' rating of severity), physical examination, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body composition and fasting lipid and glycaemic variables were compared with data obtained 8 months previously. Oral glucose tolerance was investigated. There was 98% concordance between patients' reports of the presence or absence of lipodystrophy (reported by 83% of protease-inhibitor recipients and 4% of treatment-naïve patients; p=0.0001) and physical examination. Patients' ratings of lipodystrophy were significantly associated with declining total body fat (p=0.02). Lower body fat was independently associated with longer duration of protease-inhibitor therapy and lower bodyweight before therapy, and more severe lipodystrophy was associated with higher previous (p < 0.03) and current (p < or = 0.01) triglyceride and C-peptide concentrations, and less peripheral and greater central fat (p=0.005 and 0.09, respectively). Body fat declined a mean 1.2 kg over 8 months in protease-inhibitor recipients (p=0.05). The prevalence of hyperlipidaemia remained stable over time (74% of treated patients vs 28% of naïve patients; p=0.0001). Impaired glucose tolerance occurred in 16% of protease-inhibitor recipients and diabetes mellitus in 7%; in all but three patients these abnormalities were detected on 2 h post-glucose load values. Diagnosis and rating severity of lipodystrophy is aided by the combination of physical examination, patient's rating, and measurement of body fat, fasting triglycerides, and C-peptide. Weight before therapy, fasting triglyceride, and C-peptide concentrations early in therapy, and therapy duration seem to predict lipodystrophy severity. Lipodystrophy was common and progressive after almost 2 years of protease inhibitor therapy, but was not usually severe. Hyperlipidaemia and impaired glucose tolerance were also common.
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            Protease inhibitor use and the incidence of diabetes mellitus in a large cohort of HIV-infected women.

            To assess the association between protease inhibitor (PI) use and the incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) among participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Prospective multicenter cohort study. The diagnosis of DM was based on self-report at semiannual interviews conducted from 1994 to 1998. Six inner-city clinical sites in the United States (Brooklyn, NY; Bronx, NY; Washington, DC; Chicago, IL; San Francisco, CA; and Los Angeles, CA). A total of 1785 nonpregnant women who had no history of prior DM. The women made up four groups: 1) PI users (n = 609, person-years [PY] at risk = 707); 2) reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI)-only users (n = 932, PY = 1486); 3) HIV-infected women reporting no antiretroviral therapy (ART) ever (n = 816, PY = 1480); and 4) HIV-uninfected women (n = 350, PY = 905). Incidence of DM and median body mass index (BMI) from 1995 to 1998 were compared among the four groups. Sixty-nine incident cases of DM occurred among 1785 women (1.5 cases per 100 PY; 95% CI: 1.2-1.9). The incidence of DM among PI users was 2.8 cases per 100 PY (2.8%) versus 1.2% among both RTI users and women on no ART (95% CI: 1.6-4.1 [PI]; 0.7-1.8 [RTI and no ART]; P = 0.01 for comparison of the PI group with the RTI group) and 1.4% among HIV-uninfected women (95% CI: 0.7-2.2, P = 0.06 for comparison with PI group). Weight gain was not associated with either PI or RTI use. Multivariate models identified PI use (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.90 [95% CI: 1.50-5.60]; P = 0.002), age (HR = 1.75 per 10 years [95% CI: 1.31-2.34]; P = 0.0002) and BMI as independent risk factors for DM. PI use was associated with a threefold increase in the risk of reporting incident DM. Routine screening for diabetes, particularly among older and heavier patients using PI therapy, is advisable.
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              Lipodystrophy-associated morphological, cholesterol and triglyceride abnormalities in a population-based HIV/AIDS treatment database.

              To provide population-based estimates of the prevalence of lipodystrophy syndrome and constituent symptoms and to identify correlates of prevalent symptomology. Participants in a province-wide HIV/AIDS treatment programme reported morphological and metabolic abnormalities. Probable lipodystrophy was defined as self-report of at least one morphological abnormality or both high cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Explanatory variables investigated included: age; sex; ethnicity; transmission risk group; CD4 cell count; plasma viral load; AIDS diagnosis; duration of infection; alternative therapy use; past, current and duration of use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) by class and specific drug; total duration of ART; and current adherence. Stepwise logistic regression identified possible determinates of lipodystrophy. Of 1035 participants, 50% appeared to have probable lipodystrophy, with 36% reporting peripheral wasting, 33% abdominal weight gain, 6% buffalo hump, and 10 and 12% increased triglyceride or cholesterol levels, respectively. In multivariate analysis, lipodystrophy was associated with older age (per year) (AOR 1.03; 95% CI 1.01, 1.04), the use of ingested alternative therapies (AOR 1.46; 95% CI 1.06, 2.01), having ever used protease inhibitors (PI) (AOR 2.63; 95% CI 1.89, 3.66), and duration of stavudine treatment (per year) (AOR 1.35; 95% CI 1.15, 1.58). In analysis limited to participants exposed to PI, after similar adjustment, the duration of lamivudine rather than stavudine treatment was associated with lipodystrophy (AOR 1.32; 95% CI 1.13, 1.53). Increased risk of abnormalities is associated with the use of PI, and the duration of stavudine and lamivudine treatment after adjustment for personal characteristics, clinical disease stage, duration of infection and detailed treatment history.

                Author and article information

                Case Reports in Ophthalmology
                S. Karger AG
                September – December 2016
                17 November 2016
                : 7
                : 3
                : 517-522
                Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Japan
                Author notes
                *Prof. Tsunehiko Ikeda, MD, Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-machi, Takatsuki City, Osaka 569-8686 (Japan), E-Mail tikeda@osaka-med.ac.jp
                452789 PMC5156889 Case Rep Ophthalmol 2016;7:239–244
                © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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                Figures: 3, Pages: 6
                Case Report


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