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      Spotlight on idarucizumab and its potential for the reversal of anticoagulant effects of dabigatran

      Drug Design, Development and Therapy

      Dove Medical Press

      dabigatran, idarucizumab, bleeding, surgery

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          Abstract

          Idarucizumab is the first targeted antidote of dabigatran, a direct oral anticoagulant used for prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and prevention of stroke in atrial fibrillation. Idarucizumab is a humanized fragment of a monoclonal antibody, which binds dabigatran reversibly with high affinity and, when administered intravenously, immediately neutralizes its anticoagulant effect. It is rapidly cleared by the kidney with captured dabigatran. In Phase I and II trials, no significant adverse events have been reported. Specifically, idarucizumab has no anticoagulant or procoagulant effect by itself. Idarucizumab is currently being evaluated in an ongoing Phase III trial, in patients treated with dabigatran presenting with severe active bleeding or requiring emergency surgery or an invasive procedure and are at high risk of bleeding. The results of the interim analysis confirm the ability of idarucizumab to neutralize dabigatran instantaneously, without rebound effect, except in rare patients with very high baseline levels of anticoagulant. Although not definitely proving clinical efficacy, due to the noncontrolled design of the trial and the heterogeneity of patient conditions, these promising results on an intermediate criterion with strong rationale have led to the approval of idarucizumab for these indications. However, several questions are unresolved. First, activity measurement of dabigatran in blood, useless in current practice, could be useful to guide the treatment and avoid over- or underutilization of the antidote; but so far, it has not been largely available in real time. Second, the translation of anticoagulant neutralization to an effect on mortality and better outcome is highly dependent on the global management of these patients, especially rapid diagnosis, supportive care, and easy access to antidote administration. Although idarucizumab represents a remarkable achievement in drug design and development, whether it will be an important step toward improved safety of patients treated with dabigatran in the real world will have to be demonstrated in the postmarketing phase.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Reversal of rivaroxaban and dabigatran by prothrombin complex concentrate: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in healthy subjects.

          Rivaroxaban and dabigatran are new oral anticoagulants that specifically inhibit factor Xa and thrombin, respectively. Clinical studies on the prevention and treatment of venous and arterial thromboembolism show promising results. A major disadvantage of these anticoagulants is the absence of an antidote in case of serious bleeding or when an emergency intervention needs immediate correction of coagulation. This study evaluated the potential of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) to reverse the anticoagulant effect of these drugs. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 12 healthy male volunteers received rivaroxaban 20 mg twice daily (n=6) or dabigatran 150 mg twice daily (n=6) for 2½ days, followed by either a single bolus of 50 IU/kg PCC (Cofact) or a similar volume of saline. After a washout period, this procedure was repeated with the other anticoagulant treatment. Rivaroxaban induced a significant prolongation of the prothrombin time (15.8±1.3 versus 12.3±0.7 seconds at baseline; P<0.001) that was immediately and completely reversed by PCC (12.8±1.0; P<0.001). The endogenous thrombin potential was inhibited by rivaroxaban (51±22%; baseline, 92±22%; P=0.002) and normalized with PCC (114±26%; P<0.001), whereas saline had no effect. Dabigatran increased the activated partial thromboplastin time, ecarin clotting time (ECT), and thrombin time. Administration of PCC did not restore these coagulation tests. Prothrombin complex concentrate immediately and completely reverses the anticoagulant effect of rivaroxaban in healthy subjects but has no influence on the anticoagulant action of dabigatran at the PCC dose used in this study. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.trialregister.nl. Unique identifier: NTR2272.
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            Efficacy and safety of recombinant activated factor VII for acute intracerebral hemorrhage.

            Intracerebral hemorrhage is the least treatable form of stroke. We performed this phase 3 trial to confirm a previous study in which recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) reduced growth of the hematoma and improved survival and functional outcomes. We randomly assigned 841 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage to receive placebo (268 patients), 20 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram of body weight (276 patients), or 80 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram (297 patients) within 4 hours after the onset of stroke. The primary end point was poor outcome, defined as severe disability or death according to the modified Rankin scale 90 days after the stroke. Treatment with 80 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram resulted in a significant reduction in growth in volume of the hemorrhage. The mean estimated increase in volume of the intracerebral hemorrhage at 24 hours was 26% in the placebo group, as compared with 18% in the group receiving 20 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram (P=0.09) and 11% in the group receiving 80 microg (P<0.001). The growth in volume of intracerebral hemorrhage was reduced by 2.6 ml (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.3 to 5.5; P=0.08) in the group receiving 20 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram and by 3.8 ml (95% CI, 0.9 to 6.7; P=0.009) in the group receiving 80 microg, as compared with the placebo group. Despite this reduction in bleeding, there was no significant difference among the three groups in the proportion of patients with poor clinical outcome (24% in the placebo group, 26% in the group receiving 20 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram, and 29% in the group receiving 80 microg). The overall frequency of thromboembolic serious adverse events was similar in the three groups; however, arterial events were more frequent in the group receiving 80 microg of rFVIIa than in the placebo group (9% vs. 4%, P=0.04). Hemostatic therapy with rFVIIa reduced growth of the hematoma but did not improve survival or functional outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00127283 [ClinicalTrials.gov].). Copyright 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              The effect of dabigatran plasma concentrations and patient characteristics on the frequency of ischemic stroke and major bleeding in atrial fibrillation patients: the RE-LY Trial (Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy).

              The goal of this study was to analyze the impact of dabigatran plasma concentrations, patient demographics, and aspirin (ASA) use on frequencies of ischemic strokes/systemic emboli and major bleeds in atrial fibrillation patients. The efficacy and safety of dabigatran etexilate were demonstrated in the RE-LY (Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy) trial, but a therapeutic concentration range has not been defined. In a pre-specified analysis of RE-LY, plasma concentrations of dabigatran were determined in patients treated with dabigatran etexilate 110 mg twice daily (bid) or 150 mg bid and correlated with the clinical outcomes of ischemic stroke/systemic embolism and major bleeding using univariate and multivariate logistic regression and Cox regression models. Patient demographics and ASA use were assessed descriptively and as covariates. Plasma concentrations were obtained from 9,183 patients, with 112 ischemic strokes/systemic emboli (1.3%) and 323 major bleeds (3.8%) recorded. Dabigatran levels were dependent on renal function, age, weight, and female sex, but not ethnicity, geographic region, ASA use, or clopidogrel use. A multiple logistic regression model (c-statistic 0.657, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.61 to 0.71) showed that the risk of ischemic events was inversely related to trough dabigatran concentrations (p = 0.045), with age and previous stroke (both p < 0.0001) as significant covariates. Multiple logistic regression (c-statistic 0.715, 95% CI: 0.69 to 0.74) showed major bleeding risk increased with dabigatran exposure (p < 0.0001), age (p < 0.0001), ASA use (p < 0.0003), and diabetes (p = 0.018) as significant covariates. Ischemic stroke and bleeding outcomes were correlated with dabigatran plasma concentrations. Age was the most important covariate. Individual benefit-risk might be improved by tailoring dabigatran dose after considering selected patient characteristics. (Randomized Evaluation of Long Term Anticoagulant Therapy [RE-LY] With Dabigatran Etexilate; NCT00262600). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2016
                18 May 2016
                : 10
                : 1683-1689
                Affiliations
                Hematology Laboratory, Academic Hospital of Toulouse, Hospital Rangueil, Toulouse, France
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Pierre Sié, Hématologie Laboratoire, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Hôpital de Rangueil, Avenue du Professeur Jean Pouhlès, TSA 50032, Toulouse 31059, CEDEX 9, France, Tel +33 5 6132 2289, Fax +33 5 6132 2233, Email sie.p@ 123456chu-toulouse.fr
                Article
                dddt-10-1683
                10.2147/DDDT.S94167
                4876800
                27274201
                © 2016 Sié. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                surgery, bleeding, idarucizumab, dabigatran

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