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      Application of Magnetic Nanoparticles to Gene Delivery

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          Abstract

          Nanoparticle technology is being incorporated into many areas of molecular science and biomedicine. Because nanoparticles are small enough to enter almost all areas of the body, including the circulatory system and cells, they have been and continue to be exploited for basic biomedical research as well as clinical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. For example, nanoparticles hold great promise for enabling gene therapy to reach its full potential by facilitating targeted delivery of DNA into tissues and cells. Substantial progress has been made in binding DNA to nanoparticles and controlling the behavior of these complexes. In this article, we review research on binding DNAs to nanoparticles as well as our latest study on non-viral gene delivery using polyethylenimine-coated magnetic nanoparticles.

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          Most cited references 133

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          Direct conversion of fibroblasts to functional neurons by defined factors

          Cellular differentiation and lineage commitment are considered robust and irreversible processes during development. Recent work has shown that mouse and human fibroblasts can be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state with a combination of four transcription factors. This raised the question of whether transcription factors could directly induce other defined somatic cell fates, and not only an undifferentiated state. We hypothesized that combinatorial expression of neural lineage-specific transcription factors could directly convert fibroblasts into neurons. Starting from a pool of nineteen candidate genes, we identified a combination of only three factors, Ascl1, Brn2, and Myt1l, that suffice to rapidly and efficiently convert mouse embryonic and postnatal fibroblasts into functional neurons in vitro. These induced neuronal (iN) cells express multiple neuron-specific proteins, generate action potentials, and form functional synapses. Generation of iN cells from non-neural lineages could have important implications for studies of neural development, neurological disease modeling, and regenerative medicine.
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            A new concept for macromolecular therapeutics in cancer chemotherapy: mechanism of tumoritropic accumulation of proteins and the antitumor agent smancs.

            We previously found that a polymer conjugated to the anticancer protein neocarzinostatin, named smancs, accumulated more in tumor tissues than did neocarzinostatin. To determine the general mechanism of this tumoritropic accumulation of smancs and other proteins, we used radioactive (51Cr-labeled) proteins of various molecular sizes (Mr 12,000 to 160,000) and other properties. In addition, we used dye-complexed serum albumin to visualize the accumulation in tumors of tumor-bearing mice. Many proteins progressively accumulated in the tumor tissues of these mice, and a ratio of the protein concentration in the tumor to that in the blood of 5 was obtained within 19 to 72 h. A large protein like immunoglobulin G required a longer time to reach this value of 5. The protein concentration ratio in the tumor to that in the blood of neither 1 nor 5 was achieved with neocarzinostatin, a representative of a small protein (Mr 12,000) in all time. We speculate that the tumoritropic accumulation of these proteins resulted because of the hypervasculature, an enhanced permeability to even macromolecules, and little recovery through either blood vessels or lymphatic vessels. This accumulation of macromolecules in the tumor was also found after i.v. injection of an albumin-dye complex (Mr 69,000), as well as after injection into normal and tumor tissues. The complex was retained only by tumor tissue for prolonged periods. There was little lymphatic recovery of macromolecules from tumor tissue. The present finding is of potential value in macromolecular tumor therapeutics and diagnosis.
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              In vivo reprogramming of adult pancreatic exocrine cells to beta-cells.

              One goal of regenerative medicine is to instructively convert adult cells into other cell types for tissue repair and regeneration. Although isolated examples of adult cell reprogramming are known, there is no general understanding of how to turn one cell type into another in a controlled manner. Here, using a strategy of re-expressing key developmental regulators in vivo, we identify a specific combination of three transcription factors (Ngn3 (also known as Neurog3) Pdx1 and Mafa) that reprograms differentiated pancreatic exocrine cells in adult mice into cells that closely resemble beta-cells. The induced beta-cells are indistinguishable from endogenous islet beta-cells in size, shape and ultrastructure. They express genes essential for beta-cell function and can ameliorate hyperglycaemia by remodelling local vasculature and secreting insulin. This study provides an example of cellular reprogramming using defined factors in an adult organ and suggests a general paradigm for directing cell reprogramming without reversion to a pluripotent stem cell state.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
                1422-0067
                2011
                07 June 2011
                : 12
                : 6
                : 3705-3722
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Research Team for Vascular Medicine, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 35-2 Sakae-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0015, Japan; E-Mails: yitakura@ 123456tmig.or.jp (Y.I.); satoshigojo-tky@ 123456umin.ac.jp (S.G.); mtoyoda@ 123456tmig.or.jp (M.T.)
                [2 ] Laboratory for Medical Engineering, Division of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-1 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501, Japan; E-Mails: smilesnow1987@ 123456gmail.com (S.T.); mawata@ 123456ynu.ac.jp (M.W.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: dkami@ 123456tmig.or.jp ; Tel.: +81-3-3964-3241; Fax: +81-3-3579-4776.
                Article
                ijms-12-03705
                10.3390/ijms12063705
                3131585
                21747701
                © 2011 by the authors; licensee Molecular Diversity Preservation International, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                Molecular biology

                magnetic nanoparticles, polyethylenimine, magnetofection, gene delivery

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