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      Bienestar material de la provincia de residencia e inactividad física Translated title: Material well-being of the province of residence and leisure-time physical inactivity

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          Abstract

          Objetivo: Estimar la asociación entre el bienestar material de la provincia de residencia y la inactividad física durante el tiempo libre en la población española mayor de 15 años. Métodos: Los datos proceden de la encuesta de Discapacidades, Deficiencias y Estado de Salud, realizada por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística en 1999. Se analizaron los datos de 24.561 mujeres y 21.133 varones. Se consideró un sujeto inactivo cuando declaraba no realizar ningún tipo de actividad física durante el tiempo libre. La medida de bienestar material fue la renta per cápita de la provincia agrupada en cuartiles. La medida de asociación entre la renta per cápita y la inactividad física fue la odds ratio (OR) estimada mediante modelos logit multinivel. Resultados: En los individuos ≥ 45 años de edad se encontró una asociación entre la renta per cápita y la inactividad física. Las provincias con mayor renta per cápita presentaron la menor prevalencia de inactividad física. No obstante, la OR de mayor magnitud se encontró en el cuartil 2 de renta per cápita, no observándose diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el cuartil más rico y el cuartil más pobre. Al ajustar por características socioeconómicas y otras variables individuales, esa asociación persistió en las mujeres y desapareció en los varones. En las mujeres la asociación fue mayor en el grupo de ingresos personales más bajos. Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que en las mujeres mayores de 45 años la inactividad física podría estar relacionada no sólo con las características individuales, sino también con el contexto socioeconómico del área de residencia.

          Translated abstract

          Objective: To estimate the association between material wellbeing of the province of residence and leisure-time physical inactivity in the Spanish population aged 16 years and older. Methods: We used data from the Survey on Disabilities, Impairments and Health Status carried out by the Statistical National Institute in 1999. We analyse 24,561 women and 21,133 men. Respondents were classified as inactive if they reported no leisure-time physical activity. The measure of material wellbeing was the per capita income of the province of residence grouped in quartiles. The measure of the association between per capita income and physical inactivity was the odds ratio (OR) estimated from logit multilevel models. Results: Association between per capita income and physical inactivity was observed in people aged 45 years and older. The lower prevalence of physical inactivity was observed in provinces with the higher per capita income. However the higher OR was found in quartile 2 of per capita income, because no significant difference was observed between quartile 4 (richest) and quartile 1 (poorest). After adjusting for socioeconomic characteristics and other individual variables, association remained significant in women and disappeared in men. In women, association between per capita income and physical inactivity was higher in the population group with lower personal income. Conclusions: Results suggest that physical inactivity in women aged 45 years and older could be related not only with individual characteristics but with the socioeconomic context of the area of residence.

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          Most cited references 58

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          Place effects on health: how can we conceptualise, operationalise and measure them?

          In this paper we highlight what we consider to be a lack of adequate conceptualisation. operationalisation and measurement of "place effects". We briefly review recent historical trends in the study of the effects of place on health in industrial countries, and argue that "place effects" often appear to have the status of a residual category, an unspecified black box of somewhat mystical influences on health which remain after investigators have controlled for a range of individual and place characteristics. We note that the distinction between "composition" and "context" may be more apparent than real, and that features of both material infrastructure and collective social functioning may influence health. We suggest using a framework of universal human needs as a basis for thinking about how places may influence health, and recommend the testing of hypotheses about specific chains of causation that might link place of residence with health outcomes.
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            Neighborhood of residence and incidence of coronary heart disease.

            Where a person lives is not usually thought of as an independent predictor of his or her health, although physical and social features of places of residence may affect health and health-related behavior. Using data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, we examined the relation between characteristics of neighborhoods and the incidence of coronary heart disease. Participants were 45 to 64 years of age at base line and were sampled from four study sites in the United States: Forsyth County, North Carolina; Jackson, Mississippi; the northwestern suburbs of Minneapolis; and Washington County, Maryland. As proxies for neighborhoods, we used block groups containing an average of 1000 people, as defined by the U.S. Census. We constructed a summary score for the socioeconomic environment of each neighborhood that included information about wealth and income, education, and occupation. During a median of 9.1 years of follow-up, 615 coronary events occurred in 13,009 participants. Residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods (those with lower summary scores) had a higher risk of disease than residents of advantaged neighborhoods, even after we controlled for personal income, education, and occupation. Hazard ratios for coronary events in the most disadvantaged group of neighborhoods as compared with the most advantaged group--adjusted for age, study site, and personal socioeconomic indicators--were 1.7 among whites (95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 2.3) and 1.4 among blacks (95 percent confidence interval, 0.9 to 2.0). Neighborhood and personal socioeconomic indicators contributed independently to the risk of disease. Hazard ratios for coronary heart disease among low-income persons living in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods, as compared with high-income persons in the most advantaged neighborhoods were 3.1 among whites (95 percent confidence interval, 2.1 to 4.8) and 2.5 among blacks (95 percent confidence interval, 1.4 to 4.5). These associations remained unchanged after adjustment for established risk factors for coronary heart disease. Even after controlling for personal income, education, and occupation, we found that living in a disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with an increased incidence of coronary heart disease.
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              The association of changes in physical-activity level and other lifestyle characteristics with mortality among men.

              Recent trends toward increasing physical exercise, stopping cigarette smoking, and avoiding obesity may increase longevity. We analyzed changes in the lifestyles of Harvard College alumni and the associations of these changes with mortality. Men who were 45 to 84 years of age in 1977 and who had reported no life-threatening disease on questionnaires completed in 1962 or 1966 and again in 1977 were classified according to changes in lifestyle characteristics between the first and second questionnaires. We analyzed changes in their level of physical activity, cigarette smoking, blood pressure, and body weight, and the relation of these factors to mortality between 1977 and 1985. Of the 10,269 men, 476 died during this period (which totaled 90,650 man-years of observation). Beginning moderately vigorous sports activity (at an intensity of 4.5 or more metabolic equivalents) was associated with a 23 percent lower risk of death (95 percent confidence interval, 4 to 42 percent; P = 0.015) than not taking up moderately vigorous sports. Quitting cigarette smoking was associated with a 41 percent lower risk (95 percent confidence interval, 20 to 57 percent; P = 0.001) than continuing smoking, but with a 23 percent higher risk than constant nonsmoking. Men with recently diagnosed hypertension had a lower risk of death than those with long-term hypertension (relative risk, 0.75; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.55 to 1.02; P = 0.057), as did men with consistently normal blood pressure (relative risk, 0.52; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.40 to 0.68; P < 0.001). Maintenance of lean body mass was associated with a lower mortality rate than long-term, recent, or previous obesity. The associations between changes in lifestyle and mortality were independent and were largely undiminished by age. Our findings on death from coronary heart disease mirrored those on death from all causes. Beginning moderately vigorous sports activity, quitting cigarette smoking, maintaining normal blood pressure, and avoiding obesity were separately associated with lower rates of death from all causes and from coronary heart disease among middle-aged and older men.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad Complutense de Madrid España
                [2 ] Universidad Autónoma de Madrid España
                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                gs
                Gaceta Sanitaria
                Gac Sanit
                Ediciones Doyma, S.L. (Barcelona )
                0213-9111
                December 2005
                : 19
                : 6
                : 424-432
                S0213-91112005000600002

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Spain
                Categories
                Health Policy & Services

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