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      Cardiovascular response to physical exercise and the risk of Internet addiction in 15–16-year-old adolescents

      brief-report
      * , , ,
      Journal of Behavioral Addictions
      Akadémiai Kiadó
      internet addiction, cardiovascular system, adolescents

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          Abstract

          Background and aim

          Subjective symptoms of Internet addiction (IA), such as interpersonal and health-related problems (IH-RP), do not correlate with objective physiological parameters. This study aimed to investigate the cardiovascular reactivity after physical exercise in 15–16-year-old adolescents showing different severities of symptoms of health-related problems due to Internet overuse.

          Methods

          This study included 20 healthy adolescents (boys, 15–16 years) with different risks of IA (by the Chen internet addiction scale [CIAS]). The physical exercise test was to perform a standing broad jump three times. The arterial blood pressures and heart rates were recorded before, immediately after, and at 4 minutes of rest after exercise.

          Results and discussion

          The total sample of adolescents was divided into two groups, that is, those with IH-RP scores of 12 or less (Group I, n = 12) and those scoring more than 12 points (Group II, n = 8). The diastolic blood pressure significantly increased after exercise in group II, whereas it remained stable in group I. The heart rate in group I tended to increase, but the changes were not statistically significant. Group II adolescents showed significant increases in heart rate, and at rest, this parameter was significantly higher than the baseline value.

          Conclusions

          Adolescents with a risk of IA and severe symptoms of interpersonal and health-related problems had increased sympathetic activity during and after speed-strength physical exercise compared to those without the aforementioned symptoms.

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          Most cited references17

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          Internet addiction or excessive internet use.

          Problematic Internet addiction or excessive Internet use is characterized by excessive or poorly controlled preoccupations, urges, or behaviors regarding computer use and Internet access that lead to impairment or distress. Currently, there is no recognition of internet addiction within the spectrum of addictive disorders and, therefore, no corresponding diagnosis. It has, however, been proposed for inclusion in the next version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM). To review the literature on Internet addiction over the topics of diagnosis, phenomenology, epidemiology, and treatment. Review of published literature between 2000-2009 in Medline and PubMed using the term "internet addiction. Surveys in the United States and Europe have indicated prevalence rate between 1.5% and 8.2%, although the diagnostic criteria and assessment questionnaires used for diagnosis vary between countries. Cross-sectional studies on samples of patients report high comorbidity of Internet addiction with psychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders (including depression), anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Several factors are predictive of problematic Internet use, including personality traits, parenting and familial factors, alcohol use, and social anxiety. Although Internet-addicted individuals have difficulty suppressing their excessive online behaviors in real life, little is known about the patho-physiological and cognitive mechanisms responsible for Internet addiction. Due to the lack of methodologically adequate research, it is currently impossible to recommend any evidence-based treatment of Internet addiction.
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            Internet addiction: definition, assessment, epidemiology and clinical management.

            Internet addiction is characterized by excessive or poorly controlled preoccupations, urges or behaviours regarding computer use and internet access that lead to impairment or distress. The condition has attracted increasing attention in the popular media and among researchers, and this attention has paralleled the growth in computer (and Internet) access. Prevalence estimates vary widely, although a recent random telephone survey of the general US population reported an estimate of 0.3-0.7%. The disorder occurs worldwide, but mainly in countries where computer access and technology are widespread. Clinical samples and a majority of relevant surveys report a male preponderance. Onset is reported to occur in the late 20s or early 30s age group, and there is often a lag of a decade or more from initial to problematic computer usage. Internet addiction has been associated with dimensionally measured depression and indicators of social isolation. Psychiatric co-morbidity is common, particularly mood, anxiety, impulse control and substance use disorders. Aetiology is unknown, but probably involves psychological, neurobiological and cultural factors. There are no evidence-based treatments for internet addiction. Cognitive behavioural approaches may be helpful. There is no proven role for psychotropic medication. Marital and family therapy may help in selected cases, and online self-help books and tapes are available. Lastly, a self-imposed ban on computer use and Internet access may be necessary in some cases.
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              Internet Addiction in adolescence: Neurobiological, psychosocial and clinical issues.

              Despite it has not been formally included in DSM-5 as a disorder, 'Internet addiction (IA)' has become a worldwide issue. It can be broadly defined as a non-chemical, behavioral addiction, which involves human-machine interaction. We pinpoint it as an "instrumental" form of social interaction (i.e. mediated by machines), a notion that appears useful for the sake of possible preclinical modeling. The features of Internet use reveals as addictive when this comes at the expense of genuine real-life sociability, with an overlap towards the hikikomori phenomenon (i.e., extreme retreat to one's own room). Due to the specific neuro-developmental plasticity in adolescence, IA poses risks to youths' mental health, and may likely produce negative consequences in everyday life. The thwarted development of adolescents' identity, self-image and adaptive social relationships is discussed: the IA adolescents often suffer loss of control, feelings of anger, symptoms of distress, social withdrawal, and familial conflicts. Further, more severe clinical conditions are also associated to IA, such as dysthymic, bipolar, affective, social-anxiety disorders, as well as major depression. This paper overviews the literature on IA, from neuro-biological, psycho-social and clinical standpoints, taking into account recent debates on diagnostic criteria, nosographic label and assessment tools. Neuroimaging data and neurochemical regulations are illustrated with links to pathogenetic hypotheses, which are amenable to validation through innovative preclinical modeling.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                J Behav Addict
                J Behav Addict
                JBA
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-5871
                2063-5303
                27 April 2021
                July 2021
                July 2021
                : 10
                : 2
                : 347-351
                Affiliations
                [1]N. Laverov Federal Center for Integrated Arctic Research of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences , Arkhangelsk, Russia
                Author notes
                Article
                10.1556/2006.2021.00021
                8996800
                33909593
                21a0a942-bf83-463c-9732-d8ccae12253d
                © 2021 The Author(s)

                Open Access. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                Page count
                Tables: 2, Equations: 1, References: 18, Pages: 05
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                internet addiction,cardiovascular system,adolescents

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