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      Comparison of fluticasone propionate and budesonide on COPD macrophage and neutrophil function

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          Abstract

          Background

          Inhaled corticosteroid use is associated with increased rates of pneumonia in COPD patients. The underlying mechanism is unknown, although recent data suggest that pneumonia is more frequent in patients treated with fluticasone propionate (FP) than budesonide. Macrophages and neutrophils from COPD patients are deficient in clearing bacteria, and this might explain increased bacterial colonization in COPD. Inhaled corticosteroid may further suppress this response; therefore, we examined the effect of FP and budesonide on phagocytosis of common respiratory pathogens by monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and neutrophils.

          Methods

          MDMs from COPD patients (n=20–24) were preincubated with FP or budesonide for 1 or 18 hours, after which phagocytosis of fluorescently labeled inert beads or heat-killed Haemophilus influenzae/ Streptococcus pneumoniae were measured fluorimetrically after 1 or 4 hours. Additionally, CXCL8, IL6, and TNFα concentrations in supernatants by ELISA, MDM-scavenger-receptor expression by flow cytometry, and MDM ability to kill bacteria were measured. Neutrophils from COPD patients (n=8) were preincubated with corticosteroids for 1 hour and bacteria phagocytosis measured by flow cytometry.

          Results

          After 1 hour’s preincubation, neither corticosteroid altered MDM phagocytosis of beads or H. influenzae; however, budesonide (10 −7 M) increased S. pneumoniae phagocytosis by 23% ( P<0.05). After 18 hours’ preincubation, neither corticosteroid altered MDM phagocytosis of any prey, although H. influenzae phagocytosis by budesonide was significantly greater compared to FP at 10 −6 and 10 −5 M ( P<0.05). The 1-hour preincubation with either corticosteroid inhibited bacteria-induced CXCL8 release (at 10 −7 and 10 −5 M, P<0.05); however, this effect was lost at 18-hour preincubation. There was no change in receptor expression, bacterial killing, or neutrophil phagocytosis by either corticosteroid.

          Conclusion

          These data suggest that dissolved FP and budesonide do not have an overall effect on MDM or neutrophil phagocytosis of bacteria.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Defective macrophage phagocytosis of bacteria in COPD.

          Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are an increasing cause of hospitalisations and are associated with accelerated progression of airflow obstruction. Approximately half of COPD exacerbations are associated with bacteria and many patients have lower airways colonisation. This suggests that bacterial infection in COPD could be due to reduced pathogen removal. This study investigated whether bacterial clearance by macrophages is defective in COPD. Phagocytosis of fluorescently labelled polystyrene beads and Haemophillus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae by alveolar macrophages and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) was assessed by fluorimetry and flow cytometry. Receptor expression was measured by flow cytometry. Alveolar macrophages and MDM phagocytosed polystyrene beads similarly. There was no difference in phagocytosis of beads by MDM from COPD patients compared with cells from smokers and nonsmokers. MDM from COPD patients showed reduced phagocytic responses to S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae compared with nonsmokers and smokers. This was not associated with alterations in cell surface receptor expression of toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TLR4, macrophage receptor with collagenous structure, cluster of differentiation (CD)163, CD36 or mannose receptor. Budesonide, formoterol or azithromycin did not suppress phagocytosis suggesting that reduced responses in COPD MDM were not due to medications. COPD macrophage innate responses are suppressed and may lead to bacterial colonisation and increased exacerbation frequency.
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            Pneumonia risk in COPD patients receiving inhaled corticosteroids alone or in combination: TORCH study results.

            Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are important in reducing exacerbation frequency associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, little is known about the risk of associated infections. In a post hoc analysis of the TOwards a Revolution in COPD Health (TORCH) study, we analysed and identified potential risk factors for adverse event reports of pneumonia in this randomised, double-blind trial comparing twice-daily inhaled salmeterol (SAL) 50 microg, fluticasone propionate (FP) 500 microg, and the combination (SFC) with placebo in 6,184 patients with moderate-to-severe COPD over 3 yrs. Despite a higher withdrawal rate in the placebo arm, after adjusting for time on treatment, a greater rate of pneumonia was reported in the FP and SFC treatment arms (84 and 88 per 1,000 treatment-yrs, respectively) compared with SAL and placebo (52 and 52 per 1,000 treatment-yrs, respectively). Risk factors for pneumonia were age > or =55 yrs, forced expiratory volume in 1 s <50% predicted, COPD exacerbations in the year prior to the study, worse Medical Research Council dyspnoea scores and body mass index <25 kg.m(-2). No increase in pneumonia deaths with SFC was observed; this could not be concluded for FP. Despite the benefits of ICS-containing regimens in COPD management, healthcare providers should remain vigilant regarding the possible development of pneumonia as a complication in COPD patients receiving such therapies.
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              Efficacy of salmeterol/fluticasone propionate by GOLD stage of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: analysis from the randomised, placebo-controlled TORCH study

              Background The efficacy of inhaled salmeterol plus fluticasone propionate (SFC) in patients with severe or very severe COPD is well documented. However, there are only limited data about the influence of GOLD severity staging on the effectiveness of SFC, particularly in patients with milder disease. Methods TORCH was a 3-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 6112 patients with moderate/severe COPD with pre-bronchodilator FEV1 < 60% predicted (mean age 65 years, 76% male, mean 44% predicted FEV1, 43% current smokers). To understand the relative efficacy of SFC and its components by GOLD stages, we conducted a post-hoc analysis of the TORCH dataset using baseline post-bronchodilator FEV1 to segment patients into three groups: moderate COPD (GOLD stage II and above: ≥ 50%; n = 2156), severe COPD (GOLD stage III: 30% to < 50%; n = 3019) and very severe COPD (GOLD stage IV: < 30%; n = 937). Results Compared with placebo, SFC improved post-bronchodilator FEV1: 101 ml (95% confidence interval [CI]: 71, 132) in GOLD stage II, 82 ml (95% CI: 60, 104) in GOLD stage III and 96 ml (95% CI: 54, 138) in GOLD stage IV patients, and reduced the rate of exacerbations: 31% (95% CI: 19, 40) in GOLD stage II, 26% (95% CI: 17, 34) in GOLD stage III and 14% (95% CI: -4, 29) in GOLD stage IV. SFC improved health status to a greater extent than other treatments regardless of baseline GOLD stage. Similarly, SFC reduced the risk of death by 33% (hazard ratio [HR] 0.67; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.98) for GOLD stage II, 5% (HR 0.95; 95% CI: 0.73, 1.24) for GOLD stage III, and 30% (HR 0.70; 95% CI: 0.47, 1.05) for GOLD stage IV. The rates of adverse events were similar across treatment arms and increased with disease severity. Overall, there was a higher incidence of pneumonia in the fluticasone propionate and SFC arms, compared with other treatments in all GOLD stages. Conclusion In the TORCH study, SFC reduced moderate-to-severe exacerbations and improved health status and FEV1 across GOLD stages. Treatment with SFC may be associated with reduced mortality compared with placebo in patients with GOLD stage II disease. The effects were similar to those reported for the study as a whole. Thus, SFC is an effective treatment option for patients with GOLD stage II COPD. Trial registration Clinicaltrial.gov registration NCT00268216; Study number: SCO30003
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2018
                17 September 2018
                : 13
                : 2883-2897
                Affiliations
                Airway Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Dovehouse Street, Imperial College London, London, UK, l.donnelly@ 123456imperial.ac.uk
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Louise E Donnelly, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Guy Scadding Building, Dovehouse Street, London SW3 6LY, UK., Tel +44 207 594 7895, Email l.donnelly@ 123456imperial.ac.uk
                Article
                copd-13-2883
                10.2147/COPD.S169337
                6147211
                © 2018 Belchamber et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                fluticasone propionate, budesonide, neutrophil, copd, macrophage

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