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      Basement Membrane Remodeling in Skeletal Muscles of Patients with Limb Ischemia Involves Regulation of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinases

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          Abstract

          Background/Aim: Because the pericapillary basement membrane in skeletal muscles of patients with chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI) is thickened, we determined the expression patterns of genes involved in collagen metabolism, using samples from 9 CLI patients, 4 patients with acute limb ischemia and 4 healthy controls. Methods: Gene array analysis, quantitative RT-PCR and semiquantitative grading of immunohistochemical reactivity were performed to determine mRNA/cDNA and protein concentrations. Results: In CLI patients compared to controls, cDNA levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-19 were higher, collagen type IV chains A1 and A2, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 were similar and MMP-2 were lower. On the protein level, MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-19 and TIMP-1 were more abundantly expressed. In skeletal muscles from patients with acute limb ischemia, cDNA and protein levels of MMP-9, MMP-19, collagen type IV chains, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were high. MMP-2 was elevated at the protein but decreased on the cDNA level. Conclusion: Expression of basement membrane components in skeletal muscles of CLI and acute limb ischemia patients is altered, possibly contributing to the pathogenesis of peripheral arterial disease.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Rank products: a simple, yet powerful, new method to detect differentially regulated genes in replicated microarray experiments.

          One of the main objectives in the analysis of microarray experiments is the identification of genes that are differentially expressed under two experimental conditions. This task is complicated by the noisiness of the data and the large number of genes that are examined simultaneously. Here, we present a novel technique for identifying differentially expressed genes that does not originate from a sophisticated statistical model but rather from an analysis of biological reasoning. The new technique, which is based on calculating rank products (RP) from replicate experiments, is fast and simple. At the same time, it provides a straightforward and statistically stringent way to determine the significance level for each gene and allows for the flexible control of the false-detection rate and familywise error rate in the multiple testing situation of a microarray experiment. We use the RP technique on three biological data sets and show that in each case it performs more reliably and consistently than the non-parametric t-test variant implemented in Tusher et al.'s significance analysis of microarrays (SAM). We also show that the RP results are reliable in highly noisy data. An analysis of the physiological function of the identified genes indicates that the RP approach is powerful for identifying biologically relevant expression changes. In addition, using RP can lead to a sharp reduction in the number of replicate experiments needed to obtain reproducible results.
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            Basement membranes: structure, assembly and role in tumour angiogenesis.

             Raghu Kalluri (2003)
            In recent years, the basement membrane (BM)--a specialized form of extracellular matrix (ECM)--has been recognized as an important regulator of cell behaviour, rather than just a structural feature of tissues. The BM mediates tissue compartmentalization and sends signals to epithelial cells about the external microenvironment. The BM is also an important structural and functional component of blood vessels, constituting an extracellular microenvironment sensor for endothelial cells and pericytes. Vascular BM components have recently been found to be involved in the regulation of tumour angiogenesis, making them attractive candidate targets for potential cancer therapies.
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              Plasma concentrations and genetic variation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and prognosis of patients with cardiovascular disease.

              Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 secretion by macrophages and other inflammatory cells accelerates atherosclerotic progression and destabilizes vulnerable plaque in animal models. However, epidemiological data evaluating the prognostic impact of circulating concentrations and functional genetic variations of MMP-9 are lacking. In a prospective study of 1127 patients with documented coronary artery disease, we measured baseline plasma MMP-9 levels and determined the MMP-9/C-1562T and MMP-9/R279Q genotypes. During the follow-up period (mean of 4.1 years), 97 patients died from cardiovascular (CV) causes. Median concentrations of MMP-9 were significantly higher among patients who experienced a fatal CV event than among those who did not (62.2 versus 47.8 ng/mL; P<0.0001). The crude hazard risk ratio of CV death associated with increasing quartiles of MMP-9 was 1.4 (95% CI, 1.2 to 1.8; P<0.0001), and after adjustment for clinical and therapeutic confounders, it was 1.3 (95% CI, 1.1 to 1.6; P=0.005). Additional adjustment for highly sensitive CRP, interleukin-6, fibrinogen, and interleukin-18 revealed a hazard risk ratio to 1.2 (95% CI, 0.9 to 1.6; P=0.15). The T allele of the C-1562T polymorphism was associated with increased MMP-9 levels in a fairly codominant fashion (P=0.004). Although none of the polymorphisms was significantly related with future CV death, there was a significant association (P=0.02) between the R279Q polymorphism and CV events in patients with stable angina. Plasma MMP-9 concentration was identified as a novel predictor of CV mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. Whether it provides independent prognostic information compared with other inflammatory markers will have to be additionally assessed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2007
                April 2007
                27 February 2007
                : 44
                : 3
                : 202-213
                Affiliations
                aInstitute of Anatomy, University of Bern and bSwiss Cardiovascular Center, Division of Vascular Medicine, University Hospital of Bern, Inselspital, Bern, Switzerland; cCenter for Bioinformatics Tübingen, Wilhelm Schickard Institute, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany
                Article
                100376 J Vasc Res 2007;44:202–213
                10.1159/000100376
                17337906
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, References: 35, Pages: 12
                Categories
                Research Paper

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