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      Short Physical Performance Battery as a Crosswalk Between Frailty Phenotype and Deficit Accumulation Frailty Index

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          Growing evidence supports the clinical importance of evaluating frailty in older adults, with its strong outcome relevance. We aimed to assess whether the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) correlates with frailty status according to phenotype and deficit accumulation models and can be used as a link between these models.


          We analyzed records of 1064 individuals from the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area, a population-based, prospective cohort from South Korea. Frailty was determined using the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) phenotype (phenotype model), 26- and 34-item frailty indices (deficit accumulation model). Associations of SPPB score and frailty with a composite outcome of mortality or long-term institutionalization were assessed. Crosswalks for SPPB, the CHS frailty phenotype, and the frailty index were created.


          The mean age of the study population was 76.0 years, and 583 (54.8%) were women. According to the CHS phenotype, 26- and 34-item frailty indices, 242 (22.7%), 161 (15.1%), and 280 (26.3%) participants, respectively, had frailty. Sensitivities/specificities for classifying CHS phenotype, 26- and 34-item frailty indices were 0.93/0.55, 0.71/0.84, and 0.80/0.83 by SPPB cut points of ≤9, ≤6, and ≤7, respectively. C-index of SPPB score (0.78) showed a predictive ability for the composite outcome that was comparable to that of CHS frailty phenotype (0.79), 26- (0.78), and 34-item frailty indices (0.79).


          We could create a crosswalk linking frailty phenotype and frailty index from correlations between SPPB and frailty models. This result may facilitate clinical adoption of the frailty concept in a broader spectrum of older adults.

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          Most cited references34

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          Frailty in Older Adults: Evidence for a Phenotype

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            Sarcopenia: revised European consensus on definition and diagnosis

            Abstract Background in 2010, the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) published a sarcopenia definition that aimed to foster advances in identifying and caring for people with sarcopenia. In early 2018, the Working Group met again (EWGSOP2) to update the original definition in order to reflect scientific and clinical evidence that has built over the last decade. This paper presents our updated findings. Objectives to increase consistency of research design, clinical diagnoses and ultimately, care for people with sarcopenia. Recommendations sarcopenia is a muscle disease (muscle failure) rooted in adverse muscle changes that accrue across a lifetime; sarcopenia is common among adults of older age but can also occur earlier in life. In this updated consensus paper on sarcopenia, EWGSOP2: (1) focuses on low muscle strength as a key characteristic of sarcopenia, uses detection of low muscle quantity and quality to confirm the sarcopenia diagnosis, and identifies poor physical performance as indicative of severe sarcopenia; (2) updates the clinical algorithm that can be used for sarcopenia case-finding, diagnosis and confirmation, and severity determination and (3) provides clear cut-off points for measurements of variables that identify and characterise sarcopenia. Conclusions EWGSOP2's updated recommendations aim to increase awareness of sarcopenia and its risk. With these new recommendations, EWGSOP2 calls for healthcare professionals who treat patients at risk for sarcopenia to take actions that will promote early detection and treatment. We also encourage more research in the field of sarcopenia in order to prevent or delay adverse health outcomes that incur a heavy burden for patients and healthcare systems.
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              Frailty in elderly people

              Frailty is the most problematic expression of population ageing. It is a state of vulnerability to poor resolution of homoeostasis after a stressor event and is a consequence of cumulative decline in many physiological systems during a lifetime. This cumulative decline depletes homoeostatic reserves until minor stressor events trigger disproportionate changes in health status. In landmark studies, investigators have developed valid models of frailty and these models have allowed epidemiological investigations that show the association between frailty and adverse health outcomes. We need to develop more efficient methods to detect frailty and measure its severity in routine clinical practice, especially methods that are useful for primary care. Such progress would greatly inform the appropriate selection of elderly people for invasive procedures or drug treatments and would be the basis for a shift in the care of frail elderly people towards more appropriate goal-directed care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                The Journals of Gerontology: Series A
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                March 29 2021
                March 29 2021
                [1 ]Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [2 ]Division of Gerontology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
                [3 ]Divisions of Geriatric Medicine & Neurology, Dalhousie University and Nova Scotia Health, Halifax, Canada
                [4 ]Marcus Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
                [5 ]Division of Gerontology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
                © 2021



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